- 국내에 장기 체류하고 있는 등록된 외국인의 수는 2019년 1월 말 현재 1,691,608명
□ 이주민의 우리나라에 대한 경제적 기여가 상당함
- 이민자의 경제적 효과를 162조 원으로 추정하고 있음 (강동관, 2016)
- 2017년도의 외국인들은 약 1조 2천억원의 소득세를 납부
□ 우리나라 이주배경 아동을 위한 교육 및 보육
- 한국은 아동 삶의 질에 관한 종합지수에서 상위 10위권 (세이브더칠드런, 2019)
- 그러나 대부분의 정책이 국적을 기준으로 제공되고 있음
- 유엔 아동권리협약에 비준한지 약 30년이 지났으나 아동의 출생지 및 국적에 따른 차별은 크게 개선된 바가 없음
□ 연구의 목적
- 이주배경 가족의 육아실태를 파악하고, 육아지원 방안 도출
- 대표적 이주민 집중거주지역의 사례연구를 통하여 다른 이주민 집중거주지에 대한 정책적인 시사점을 밝힘
- 이주아동이 안정적으로 양육받고 건강하게 성장할 수 있는 방안 제안 The number of migrants staying in Korea is increasing and it has long been over 2 million. Depending on the growing number of migrants, their contribution to Korea's economy is significant. Migrants directly pay an income tax of more than 1.2 trillion won, and their overall economic impact is estimated more than 53 trillion won.
Compared to this growing number of migrants, the development of education and childcare policies for their children could not keep up the pace. This study deals with the current situation of child rearing of migrants with children lower elementary schoolers or younger children.
The researchers conducted in-depth interviews with 12 migrants and 3 migrant support workers. In-depth interviews were conducted by researchers and, in some cases, by relevant civil society workers and interpreters. The study also surveyed 155 migrants from 27 countries. The questionnaire was translated into English, Russian, Chinese, French and Arabic. The questionnaire distributed through the web was answered by accessing the Internet through a mobile phone and a personal computer, but there were some cases where a paper questionnaire was used for those who are not familiar with the web.
More than 25% of the migrants in the survey answered that they have no one to ask take care of their children when they had emergency. Paternal care rate was too low, especially the families who care their children at home because of long working hours. Most migrants who send their children to childcare centers or kindergartens were paying self-pay, which averaged about 200,000 won. On the other hand, foreigners were satisfied with the newly introduced health insurance mandatory system in July 2019.
In-depth interviews show that migrant parents are no less concerned about their children's education. Migrants' birth declaration has both negative aspects of state control and positive aspects of ensuring individual status. However, in many cases, there are limitations in providing basic services in Korea, so a system is needed to verify births and prove them separately from citizenship. In addition to the migrant children, there is a need for parental education. To this end, more support is needed to provide information through educational institutions for children, such as kindergartens and day care centers. Migrants have no choice but to use unlicensed facilities. In this case, they face the double difficulty of not being able to guarantee the level because they are placed in blind spots of various kinds of management as well as government support. Therefore, in the case of unauthorized facilities, it is necessary to expand the service support through indirect support measures such as the support of manpower to the sponsoring institution. In addition, it is necessary to devise measures to guarantee the minimum quality level, such as program support, for unlicensed facilities.
With the results of this study, we suggest 6 points;
First, active support under the law is needed.
Second, childcare and education support system for young children of migrants should be reinforced.
Third, Indirect support from central and local governments for unregistered childcare facilities is required.
Fourth, systematic parent education support for migrants is required.
Fifth, control towers for policy coordination for migrants are needed.
Sixth, local health insurance support for infants and young children is required.