□ 2018년부터 2022년까지의 5차년도에 걸친 종단 연구를 수행함으로써 영유아 및 초등 자녀 가구의 육아서비스 수요 및 요구 등에 관한 현황을 지속적으로 파악하고, 이를 통하여 보다 장기적인 정책 대응 마련을 위한 기초자료 제공
- 영유아 및 초등 자녀 가구의 양육지원 정책 마련 및 추진을 위한 기초자료 제공
- 영유아기-취학 전환기 가구의 육아서비스 이용 수요의 전반적인 변동과 가구의 대응에 관한 데이터를 구축, 초등 자녀 양육 지원을 위한 정책 수립의 기초자료 제공
- 영유아 및 초등입학기 자녀 가구의 육아서비스 수요를 적절하게 파악하여 육아서비스의 중복 및 사각지대 문제를 해소하고, 장기적인 전망 등을 통한 육아서비스 공급 정책 방안 마련의 토대를 구축 Prior studies related to supports for childcare services have generally been limited in setting up long-term and comprehensive policies in response to meet the demand by utilizing results derived from cross-sectional data-based analyses.
As a means to overcome this limitation, this study started in 2018. It will continue until 2022 for five-years as a longitudinal study to identify the current needs and demands of households with infants, young children, and children-entering elementary schools for childcare services. It will, further, use the information as primary data for the legislation of up long-term, responsive policies.
This year is the second year of the longitudinal study, and it analyzed the actual use and demand of childcare services by households with children-entering elementary schools as well as those with infants or young children. Subsequently, it aims to accurately assess the current needs of the corresponding families for childcare services, and efficiently propose policies for childcare services, alleviating the problems of the overlapping and blind spot.
This study, first, investigated the previous research on early childhood education, childcare, and care services by which the daily routines of infants, young children, and children-entering elementary schools are revolved around and considered changes in national policies related to the use of childcare services.
Based on the 2019 consumer survey data (1,902 respondent households; 2,776 infants/young children/children-entering elementary schools), it assessed how the actual extent of the use and the cost of childcare services differed by the age groups, the discrepancy between the desired service and the practical application of service, opinions, and demands related to childcare-service policies and more. To encompass information not accessed from the survey and expertise of experts and childcare service providers in the relevant field, it conducted interviews with parents whose children are the users of childcare services. It held expert-advisory meetings and childcare-service providers' meetings, respectively.
This study classified households into those with infants and young children and the others with children-entering elementary schools and, then, examined the actual use and needs of childcare services according to the age-groups of children. The main findings from the various research methods are as follows:
First, results indicated that 52.9 percent or more of the infants and young children use any form of childcare centers. 26.5 percent use kindergartens, 1.6 percent use institutes for longer than a half-day daily, and 19.9 percent do not use any institutions for longer than a half-day. For families with children entering elementary school who responded to have used multiple childcare services, 81.0 percent of them use Hagwon (private educational institutes), 74.4 percent of them are taken care of by their parents, and 62.7 percent use after-school programs.
Second, concerning childcare-center expenses, the lower the household income, and the larger the size of the residential areas, the more additional childcare expenses other than government subsidies were likely to be paid. Comparing to infants, young children paid more additional childcare expenses for childcare, extracurricular activities, and more. As for the cost using kindergartens, the larger the size of the residential area, the more education-expenses other than government subsidies were likely to be paid, the cost of using institutions longer than a half-day differ depending on the household income.
Third, households with children-entering elementary schools tend to use various types of services such as after-school classes, private tutoring, individual care services, and more as a means to fill the break in care services. The primary caretaker's employment and burden of cost are the major reasons for the gap between the actual use of services and the desired services.
Fourth, both types of households of infants and young children, and children entering-elementary schools had the highest percentage of responding “Parents, first, should be responsible and government, then, should support” on the subject of childcare. As for policies on supports for parental care time, they had a high percentage of responding, “It is necessary to strengthen workplace-supports for parents to use them freely.”
In this study, the policies created in response to the demand for childcare services for households with infants, young children, and children-entering elementary schools can be summed up in ways to reach the goal of 'enhancing the social responsibility of childcare services.' The basic directions the policies need to take toward the goal is as follows:
First, policy-makers need to address the overlooked areas of care services for households with children-entering elementary schools.
Second, they need to expand public childcare institutions and programs.
Third, they need to provide customized childcare support services according to children's age, households with a dual-income or single income, and households' incomes.
Fourth, they need to guarantee the right to play for children, so they may grow and develop healthily.
Fifth, they need to strengthen social and national supports, further guaranteeing parental leave for women and men to maintain and develop the substantial time-supporting policy.
Sixth, they need to closely monitor the current flow of cash-supports to substantialize cash-support policies. Based on these aforementioned basic directions, they are to propose specific policy measures to actualize the goal to provide childcare and educational services to meet the actual demands of families.