□ 저출산 극복, 아동의 권리 존중, 육아하는 부모의 지원을 위해서는 기존의 제도적 접근과 더불어 ‘가치’와 ‘가치의 실현’을 확산, 지원할 수 있는 정부의 정책적 노력이 필요함. 이는 육아정책에 가치에 관련된 문화적 측면에서의 접근이 병행되어야하는 이유임.
□ 본 연구는 다음 세대 구성원을 육성하는 ‘아이를 기르는 일’, ‘육아(育兒)’를 중심으로 형성된 우리사회의 육아문화에 대한 인식과 현황을 진단 분석하여 도출된 부정적 요소를 줄여감으로써 육아존중문화로의 변화와 긍정적 육아문화를 조성하기 위한 방안을 모색함을 목적으로 함.
□ 본 연구는 3개년 협동연구로 우리사회 육아문화의 현황을 분석하여 개선해야 할 부정적 요소들을 구체화하고, 긍정적 변화를 위한 과제를 도출하는 기초연구에서 비롯하여 가정, 직장, 지역사회를 중심으로 그 범위를 넓혀 순차적인 실천적 방안들을 마련하고자함. As the negative perception of parenting is becoming prevalent and problematic, this study, three-year collaborative research, aims at laying the foundation for positive awareness on parenting by promoting a paradigm shift toward a culture that values child-rearing, requires equal parental responsibility for child care, and encourages parent’s work-family balance.
In the first year of the study, the current parenting culture is examined and analyzed. Based on the analysis, researchers find room for improvement to create a culture that respects and values parenting.
This study premises that the current culture of parenting has three aspects. First, the negative part of the child care culture is greatly highlighted rather than the positive. Second, there is a lack of consideration for families with young children in the workplace and despite the existing work-family balance policy that is designed to support families with young children, parents find it difficult to take advantage of it. Third, there is gender inequality in parenting within the family, community, and society.
To conduct extensive research, from defining the culture of parenting to providing an outline for a culture that respects parenting, both quantitative and qualitative research methods are employed.
Qualitative research method includes literature review, in-depth interviews with parents with young children, workshops with Parenting Culture Creators, a case study of Norway and Denmark parenting culture, and policy seminars with scholars and experts. Quantitative research method includes big data analysis in social media and a survey of 1,000 participants between the ages of 20 and 40.
The three assumptions ―the negative side of parenting culture, lack of consideration for families with young children in the workplace and society, and lack of gender equality in child care within family and community― stated in this study are identified by the findings of big data analysis in social media, the discussion brought up at the workshop, and survey results.
The negative aspects of parenting culture are attributed to workplace culture lacking consideration for child care, the shortage of reliable ECEC institutions, devalued parenting, and excessive cost in child care. On the other hand, the emotional support given by family members, the joy that children bring to parents, family's support in child care, reliable ECEC institutions, safe neighborhood, and government support in ECEC result in enhancing the positive aspects of parenting culture.
The findings indicate that the ongoing policy efforts will allow a paradigm shift to a positive parenting culture. This change can take place when policy and culture that support parenting are set up in the workplace and gender equality in child care is achieved at the family level.
At the central government level, we suggest to state improvement of parenting culture in government's mid- and long-term goals, establish a partnership with social partners such as companies, promote child and family-friendly local government, place facilities for the family with young children in public transportation.
At the local government level, expanding community facilities that are designed for families and children and the opportunity for use of facilities are recommended. Also, offering local government-based programs that encourage the participation of families and their children, offering discounts for families with young children within the community, campaigning for the reduction of no-kids-zone, opening a community center for parents with children, and running the Parent Culture Creators are suggested.
In the private sector, participating in TV program production can reach a social consensus for fostering a culture that respects parenting and promoting the positive side of parenting culture. To share the importance of culture that respects parenting, YouTube, social network services, and web searching channels, as well as broadcasting channels, can be adopted. In addition, distributing promotional items that contain a supportive message for parenting to child-care relevant institutions, parents, and the public can be effective in achieving positive awareness of parenting.