This study aimed at investigating the childcare situation of children not enrolled in either kindergarten or childcare centers, the kinds of education or care services these children utilize, the reasons for non-enrollment or discontinuance of enrollment if previously enrolled, the kinds of childcare difficulties experienced, and their needs in terms of government policies. Based on these findings, this study makes several suggestions for a more effective childcare support system provided for children who are not enrolled in any educational programs. Parents or care-givers of the children (1 through 5 years of age) who were not enrolled in either kindergarten or childcare center were surveyed, and 709 cases were analyzed. The major findings of the study are as follows.
Of the 709 cases, 102 children(14.4%) had enrolled in either kindergarten or childcare center in the past. This study found that the children entered the program before they were 3 years old (29.2 months in average). Infants (between ages 1 and 2) stayed in the program for only 4.82 months on average whereas young children (between ages 3 and 5) stayed in the program for 10.65 months on average. The main reasons for the enrollment in the program for infants were 'difficulties in childcare' (45.5%) and 'lack of other means of childcare' (27.3%), and 'for social development' (34.1%) and 'because my child seemed to be bored' (25.3%) for young children. The parents responded that they were satisfied in general but were displeased with 'expenses' when their child was enrolled in the program.
Of the 709 children, 336 children had used individual education services. The survey results indicated that the first individual education services used by these children were infant and child programs provided at cultural centers or community centers (65.8%), and home visiting services from private enterprises providing worksheets or educational materials (34.2%). Among the children who had used individual education services, 63.1% of the children started using the service before they were 2 years old (23.6 months in average). The amount of household income and the number of and expenses for individual education service were positively correlated.
Of the 709 cases, 96 children participated in private institutions. Over 62.1% of the children started participating in private institutions after 3 years of age. This indicates that children start using private institutions later than kindergarten, childcare centers, or individual education services. Families of children who went to private institutions were characterized by relatively higher rates of working mothers, and their household income was above the average household income of the 709 families. Most of the children who were participating in private institutions used these services over 5 days a week, spending over 3.7 hours per day at the institution. This finding indicates that these families enroll their children in private institutions in substitution for kindergarten or childcare centers. These families showed relatively higher levels of satisfaction.
The families who had enrolled their child in the past and those who had never enrolled their child in kindergarten or childcare centers had different reasons for non-enrollment. The former responded in the order of 'burden of expense' (33.3%), 'the child has difficulty in adjustment' (21.6%), and 'not able to find programs in need' (12.7%) whereas the latter responded in the order of 'child is too young to attend' and 'burden of expense' as reasons for non-enrollment. Most of the non-enrollment families responded that they plan to have their child participate in kindergarten or childcare center programs (47.5%), yet 38.6% of these families indicated that they plan to use private institutions.
Based on the needs assessment on childcare support policies, this study suggested the establishment of part-time childcare centers that provide flexible childcare services, expanded opportunities for parental leave of absence that can enable parents to take care of young children, more financial support for 'all children' instead of limited support for 'children from low-income families' as well as proposing a voucher system to establish an equal start for young children from low-income families.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 연구의 배경
Ⅲ. 국내∙외 미이용 가정의 육아지원제도
Ⅳ. 미이용 아동의 육아실태 개관
Ⅴ.미이용 아동의 과거 유치원∙보육시설 이용 경험
Ⅵ. 미이용 아동의 교육∙보육 서비스 이용 경험
Ⅶ. 미이용 가정의 육아의 애로점과 요구
Ⅷ. 요약 및 정책방안