The purpose of this study is to provide some basic data for child care policies by collecting data on the child care expenditure of households with young children, analyzing the make up of child care costs, and producing relevant statistics.
The study reviewed cases from the U. S., Australia, and Japan, in order to form the theoretical background; collected and reviewed preceding studies o n child care expenditure in Korea; and analyzed the National Statistical Office’s 2009 household income and expenditure survey results. Additionally, the study selected 250 households and asked them to record their daily expenditure for one month in June 2010.
The National Statistical Office’s survey indicates that economically underprivileged households tend to have more children. The biggest expenditures for households with one-year-old children were health-related items and products and services that include child care services. Educational expenditure was not especially high for infants. However, it sharply increases when a child becomes a toddler; households with five-year-old children tend to show rapid increases in educational expenditure. However, it is estimated that double-income families with young children are making smaller investments in education due to low income levels. There were savings from economy of scale; child care costs per child decreased as the number of young children increased in a family. However, the total child care expenditure and its ratio to household income and expenditure rose with the increase in the number of children. Double-income families and single-income families showed no significant differences in the ratio of child care expenditure to the total household expenditure; this indicates that regardless of the income level, households spend a certain percentage of their available income on their children.
The household expenditure survey indicates that families with more children spend more on child rearing. The percentage of child care expenditure in terms of total household consumption and expenditure increased for families with many children. This indicates that families with many children are bearing significant financial burdens. At least more than 300,000 won was needed for child care expenditure in low-income families as a minimum child care cost. Child care expenditure increased as family income grows. The proportion of child care expenditure in household income decreased for households in the high-income bracket. However, regardless of the income level, child care expenditure took up 40% of the total household expenditure for families with one child, and 60% for families with three children. Details of child care expenditure differed according to the number of children and their age. Educational expenditure tends to increase exponentially as children grow older.
The study presents the following policy recommendations. In the short term, viable standards of financial support for child care costs, double-income families, and vaccinations are needed. In the long term, financial support for child rearing should be provided universally. Case analysis of the U. S., Australia, and Japan shows that the government should make greater efforts to estimate the real costs of rearing young children.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 이론적 배경 및 선행연구
Ⅲ. 가계동향조사 자료 분석 결과
Ⅳ. 영유아가구 가계지출조사 결과
Ⅴ. 영유아 양육비용 지원 정책 제언