Typically, children under 36 months are considered to be better raised at home. This study aimed to analyze the case of parents who provide day care to their children, and determine the type of support system they need.
In particular, this study separated home day care into three categories according to the identity of the 'primary caregiver' and compared the conditions of home care and the associated needs of families belonging to the three categories.
The data were collected from participants in all regions nationwide, except Jeju. A total of 1,000 survey cases and 14 in-depth interview cases were collected and analyzed.
The main results of this study were as follows:
First, families raising their children at home were typically nuclear families with an average of 3.7 people per household. Fathers were mostly employed, whereas the mothers' employment rate was only 26.6 percent.
Second, these families revealed that they employed a different parenting style depending on the child's age. Parents with a child under 24 months old reported that home care is the most desirable way to raise a child. The desire for home day care decreases as children get older. Most of the parents claimed that the appropriate age for a child to start center-based day care is 33 months.
Third, among the home care families, the person who acts as 'primary caregiver' differs according to the size of a region, family income, and mother's characteristics. Generally, data concerning parents who provide home care for their children revealed that there was a low employment rate among mothers. However, in the case of a babysitter or a relative other than the mother taking on the role of primary caregiver, mothers were employed.
Fourth, families who chose to provide home care were satisfied with their parenting style. In the case of hiring a baby-sitter, mothers find balancing work and family easier. Fifth, regardless of their parenting type, there was a consensus among parents that they required 'financial support', specifically, child-rearing support. However, data showed that when parents take care of children on their own, the need for short-term day care service and parenting information is high. When a relative plays a role as primary caregiver, data revealed that the demand for health care service is high, due to its potential to decrease the primary caregiver's level of stress and improve their health. In the case of families who employed a babysitter to play the role of primary caregiver, the demand for a quality management system for babysitting was high.
Based on the results of this study, recommendations were made according to the following basic principles: 'ensure diversity and selectivity in child-rearing', 'prevent a contradiction between the parent supporting system and the mother's participation in economic activities', 'strengthen parenting abilities', 'increase childbirth rate by supporting parents' and 'provide a customized support system according to the existing parenting type'.
The following recommendations for future policy have been made on the basis of the results of the research: ‘the establishment of 'differentiated child allowance levels according to the total income level of the family', 'set limitations as to the use of child allowance', 'an expansion of the term of parental leave', 'permission for both parents to receive wages during parental leave', and 'the establishment of a credible organization that can assign baby-sitters who are able to provide a high level of care and can provide an allowance to pay for the provision of that care’.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 연구의 배경
Ⅲ. 가정 내 양육 실태 개관
Ⅳ. 양육 형태별 양육 실태
Ⅴ. 양육 형태별 비교
Ⅵ. 정책 방안