Despite of strengthened support for work-family compatibility, total birthrate of Korea is only 1.19 babies and women's economic activity rates stay at 50% level. Based on these backgrounds, this study investigated how well the current work-family compatibility support fits to the needs of dual income families, and proposed substantiality enhancement measures, customized by characteristics of dual income families with children. For this, a survey research was conducted among 1,736 working mothers with children, 850 kindergartens, and 896 daycares. Also, this study analyzed cases of current operation status of time-extended care at daycare and after-school care at kindergarten, and childcare support services at local community.
First, current utilization status and demands of childcare support services and system for dual income families are as follows. Overall, dependence on daycare and grandparents was predominant, and there were high expenses of private childcare support service, such as approximately 700,000won for a private babysitter. Use time of institution was average 8 hours which did not correspond with working hours, and there was a relatively low satisfaction level in the aspects of days of operation, parent's participation, fees, and emergency childcare. While main reason of using at-home childcare was predominantly to be used along with institution childcare, it seemed 0-1 year olds had difficulty in adjusting to institutions and 90% of sub childcaring person was grandparents. Childcare support services of local community showed high demands in child developmental test, book lending, and childcare information, and awareness level of the services among full-time working families was low. (Childcare)time support system was used mainly as a vacation/leave of absence and the system was not fully implemented in small businesses. As for appropriate childcare method of working parents, direct childcare by parents was favored at overwhelmingly high percentage, and main difficulties in childcare were difficulty in managing work and childcare simultaneously and insufficient time for childcare.
Next, the current status of childcare and education institutions' operation and demands are as follows. There was a difference in yearly closing days, specifically approximately 26 days for daycare and approximately 37 days for kindergarten. Rate of documentary evidence verification at the time of admission was only 54% at daycare and 40.5% at kindergarten. Also, due to high percentage of parent participating programs being conducted on weekday afternoons, there is a concern of limited participation of dual income families. Percentage of time-extended care and holiday care operation were 24.2% and 6.5% each, and the need for operation was presented relatively higher in the forementioned services. As for improvement tasks for strengthening childcare support for dual income families, teacher allocation, allowance support fit to characteristics of family, flexible operation hours, enhanced after-school program quality were suggested.
Based on these analysis results, this study proposed the following political measures. Basic direction of childcare support for dual income families includes 1) ensuring caring rights of working parents ; 2) pursuing childcare rights and responsibility in terms of gender equality; and 3) establishing working environment of work-family compatibility. Balanced structure of support service and (childcare)time service and customized planning by family characteristics were proposed as detailed strategies. Specific substantiality enhancement measures for dual income family's childcare support are as follows: increasing effectiveness of work-family compatibility plan, establishing systematic ground such as a performance and result management system for the relevant services, strengthening institution admission management, normalizing institutions' working hours, enhancing substantiality of all-day care operation such as increasing effectiveness of time-extended care operation, strengthening the right of choice for at-home childcare such as strengthening support on all-day childcare for 0-1 year olds, increasing accessibility of childcare support services of local community such as regular operation of Total Childcare Support Center on Saturdays, and enhancing substantiality of corporate's (childcare)time support system such as vitalizing the shorter working hour system. Furthermore, the study proposed customized support measures for dual income families with 0-1 year olds who have problems of work-family compatibility, full-time working families, untypical working families, and dual income families with low income.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 연구의 배경
Ⅲ. 맞벌이 가구 양육지원 현황 및 한계점
Ⅳ. 맞벌이 가구의 육아지원서비스 및 제도 이용 실태와 요구
Ⅴ. 맞벌이 가구 대상 육아지원서비스 운영 실태와 개선 과제
Ⅵ. 정책 방안