Panel Study on Korean Children (PSKC) 2015 is conducted to investigate the trajectory of Korean children’s life since birth; the research is a continuous follow-up study that builds up the data to realize and comprehend the process of children’s development and their upbringing environments. It aims to provide implications for the childcare policy design by identifying the characteristics of childrearing environment systems like those of parent, family, institution and child support policy. PSKC 2015 targets 1,620 households participated in surveys conducted in 2014. The followings are key research outcomes.
First, 90.4% of household panels were nuclear families consist of parents and children with average income of 450,970,000 won; additionally, 95.9% of fathers and 45.8% of mothers were either employed or managing both career and study.
Second, children’s cognitive and language development was at its normal level, attaining over 3 points out of 5. Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test (REVT) showed that 77.7% of children had normal development. Children’s perception of happiness marked 3.57 points out of 4 and the level of interactive play in the peer interaction was 3.08 points out of 4 in average, demonstrating a good development overall. The total average score of problematic behavior was 20.07 points with internalized problem of 6.80 points and externalized problem of 5.70 points; thus, the level of internalized behavioral problem was somewhat higher than the one of external behavior problem. Meanwhile, the problematic behavior appears to differ in relation to the birth order and family income.
Third, the domestic childcare environment appeared to be in a good state, however, mother’s linguistic and emotional reactivity towards a child appeared to be at a low level in comparison to other domain levels. Compared to last year’s research, mother’s self-esteem and parent’s marital satisfaction levels decreased. Additionally, interaction among family members differed in relation to mother’s academic background and family income.
Fourth, it appeared that the percentage of extracurricular activities carried out within institutions increased in relation to the age of the child. After 3 years old, over 2/3 of childcare support organizations implemented extracurricular activities.
Fifth, according to the outcome of opinion polls among mothers on the direction of governmental childcare support policy, they believed expanding both childcare support service and work and childrearing balance to be crucial.
A number of policy implications can be drawn from the results.
1) Support for Korean children’s healthy growth and development: a concern for children with internalized and externalized problematic behavior is needed as well as a governmental support for children from low-income family to prevent them from having problematic behaviors. Additionally, socio-emotional development program must be provided.
2) Provision of healthy childrearing environment for Korean children: it is essential for mothers to react more sensitively to their children’s responses. Furthermore, on account of the fact that interaction between family members differs in relation to mother’s educational background and household income status, support and care for children growing up in a low-income family are needed.
3) Childcare support service and policy: in order for young infants to be well nurtured by their parents, maternity and childcare leave systems ought to be vitalized and governmental interest and support for specialized programs within childcare support institutions are necessary.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 8차년도(2015) 패널 연구 사업 보고
Ⅲ. 7차년도(2014) 조사결과 기초 분석
Ⅳ. 2008-2014년도 영유아기 주요 변인 추이 분석
Ⅴ. 정책적 시사점