This study was conducted with the topic of ‘Child abuse targeting of young children’ being the second year study of「Plans to Further Safe Childcare Education Environments」, which is composed of 3-year-study. Social awareness highlighted as child abuse happens more and abuse targeting of young children especially has a high rate to result in serious results even among child abuse. Thus, this study intends to find ways to prevent of young child abuse in advance through teacher’s awareness in child care center and kindergarten that care and educate of young children and that of parents who raise of young children.
For this, definition of child abuse and features of it were understood, with causes and effects, related awareness of it reviewed, and prevention system along with institutions related to child abuse in developed countries and our country were studied. Through survey, awareness related to young child abuse in child care center, kindergarten, home was analyzed, and supporting policy to prevent young child abuse was proposed based on this.
As a result of pilot study review, ratio of neglect lessens as the age of child increases, but physical abuse and sexual abuse tend to increase. Although many people are aware of child abuse, they tend to avoid active measures such as reporting it. The ratio of parents being doers of child abuse is high with 80%. Child abuse was shown to influence adjustment matters, behavioral matters and emotional matters of children. As a result of meta analysis done in this study, factors affecting neglect, emotional and physical abuse of young children were shown to be various including features of young children, family, teachers, local community factors and factors affecting occurrence of young child abuse uniformly were nurturing stress, marital satisfaction, social support from parents, attachment, and maternal attitudes.
On the other hand, government constructed overall system regarding prevention of child abuse and early detection after declaring 2016 as the first year to construct system to eliminate child abuse. Likewise, recent policies related to child abuse are having their focus moved to early detection and prevention rather than post-process. In foreign cases, laws of England let public institutions of the region take the task about child abuse but also admit legal positions of NSPCC, a charitable organization founded in 1884, to intervene child abuse matters. Child and Juvenile Support Act of Germany was enacted in 1991 and clarified that Jugendamt is generally responsible for prevention measure of child abuse through afterward revision.
This study conducted survey targeting parents and teachers and for the reason that they did not take any measures although they heard or witnessed abusing actions, most of them answered ’because it did not look serious to get myself included’ with the highest rate as a result of analyzing surveys from both of them. Teachers were shown to have relatively longer training hours related to child abuse on average by session and more training chances related to it. The biggest reason for child abuse in child care center or kindergarten with the highest rate was answered ‘job stress from teachers because of poor working conditions’, and most parents wanted ‘strengthening teacher training course’ while teachers wanted ‘manpower expansion for child care center and kindergarten’ for number one priority to prevent child abuse. The biggest reason for child abuse to happen in home with highest rate drew responses ‘nurturing stress’ from both parents and teachers. Most parents wanted ‘policy support to reduce nurturing stress’ while teachers wanted ‘mandatory training related to child abuse for parents’ for the most important and desirable measure at national levels to prevent child abuse in home.
Based on research results, this study proposed first, policy establishment in the direction to prevent child abuse and second, importance in supporting policy for healthy growth and development of young children as policy orientations to prevent child abuse. For policy plan, systematic and administrative support and support by target were proposed, divided. In systematic and administrative support, it suggested review over systems regarding child abuse, cooperation and system sharing between departments and executing institutions, medical system and big data utilization, elastic intervention towards child abuse, utilization of family visit program, foundation of objective standard for child abuse and education. As support policies for parents in support by target, it included mandatory parental education, provision of parental counseling, expansion of childcare support service, campaign utilizing TV media, activation of self-help meetings, support management for vulnerable people. Supporting policies for teachers included support for teachers, reinforcement of current teacher’s training, reinforcement of selection process for pre-teachers and improvement of teacher training curriculum, structurally improvement of institution operation for child abuse prevention, manpower support to reduce burden of teachers’ task, improvement of teahcer’s working conditions, provision of teachers counseling service, reinforcement of teachers’ self-esteem through improvement on social awareness.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 연구의 배경
Ⅲ. 영유아 학대 관련 제도 및 정책 분석
Ⅳ. 학부모와 교사의 영유아 학대에 대한 인식
Ⅴ. 정책 제언