Kindergartens and childcare centers are an educare community which is made of teacher, children, parents, and various supportive groups. In this study, researcher focuses on assistant workforce who aids the curriculum management in kindergarten and childcare center. There are a variety of manpower resources in kindergarten and childcare center such as homeroom teacher, assistant teacher, general affair officer, nutritionist, nurse, driver and cleaner.
In this study, assistant workforce is limited to those who are non-full-time staff around a homeroom teacher, who help improve the quality of the curriculum and reduce the burden on teachers. Those people belong to temporary positions. In case of kindergarten, non-homeroom teachers in the educational public service(Section 23 of Early Childhood Education Act) include periodic teacher who are in charge of after-school courses and full-day program, instructors, substitute teachers, third-generation harmony teachers, and student teachers. In childcare center, it includes assistant teachers, care helpers, and substitute teachers(Section 17 of Infant Care Act).
The new administration proposes a new policy, ‘Temporary position to full time position’ in order to provide the quality occupation; therefore, there has been a high profile in the temporary positions’ working conditions and treatment, which have been regarded as assistive and supportive. Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education also proposes a new legislation for periodical and part time positions and progressive labor reform for unlimited contract workers.
In the case of childcare center, there will be a policy with a local government to support childcare teachers and childcare support policies to reduce the labor work of childcare teachers and to improve the quality of childcare.
Assistant workforce in kindergarten and childcare center have lowered the ratio of teacher to children in the centers and enhance the effectiveness of education. Temporary workforce takes a significant role to reduce homeroom teachers’ workload, so that it helps the homeroom teacher to manage the curriculum and enhance the quality of education and childcare.
Meanwhile, there has been insufficient studies on the assistant duty, qualification, treatment and working condition of assistant workforce in the education system that centered on homeroom teacher. In the previous studies on early childhood teacher, the assistant workforce has been defined as a role to assist full time teachers or incompetence. In the point of full time teacher and professional’s view, temporary teachers have been perceived as a minority who cannot speak up the voice.
There are stark wage, welfare, and treatment gap between kindergarten and childcare, and eventually the gap affects the quality of the education and childcare. Although the gap is existed between full time positions, the temporary positions also suffer from the gap.In the point of integration of Kindergarten and Childcare center, it is necessary to reduce the qualitative gap in kindergarten and childcare, it requires a new research regarding full time teachers’ duty, treatment and working condition. There must be a gap between the full time and the temporary positions, but a policy that reduces the elements of discrimination is also needed.
The purpose of this study is to identify the actual duty and needs of assistant workforce in the kindergarten and childcare center for the improvement of the quality of early childhood education and care, and to suggest new ways of teacher policy.
Research contents are as follows. First, a theoretical study on assistant workforce in kindergarten and childcare center. Second, survey on the duties, management and treatment of kindergarten and childcare assistants. Third, survey on the professionals’ opinion on the assistant manpower management in kindergarten and childcare center. Fourth, Strengthening plan for operating kindergarten and childcare center assistant workforce.
The research methods are following. First, Analysis of Literature Review and Precedent Research: Analyzing the concept, category, and duty content of the assistant workforce in kindergarten and childcare center, analyzing the legal system and the policy on the assistant workforce of kindergarten and childcare center, analyzing the actual and present condition regarding kindergarten and childcare assistant workforce in OECD and EU. Second, a survey was conducted with 934 kindergartens and childcare managers and principles and 360 assistant workforce in kindergartens and childcare centers to collect onions on the working status of the assistant workforce and the improvement plan. Different verification was conducted with instructors, temporary teachers, general affair staffs in kindergartens and Nuri assistant teachers, general assistant teachers, childcare helpers, substitute teachers, and non-homeroom teachers in childcare centers. Third, survey on expert’s opinion was conducted: Expert Advisory Conference (Expert advisory conference on individual and group experts, research direction design and survey design, questionnaire and policy suggestion review), Expert Delphi Survey (With 43 experts, researcher collected the opinions for three times and calculated the CVR value to derive the policy priority). Fourth, depth interview were used to identify specific points on the management status and improvement of kindergarten and childcare assistants and conducted individual or group interview in order to understand the data of the survey and the advisory conference.
The study suggested a law and policy upon assistant manpower in kindergarten and childcare center and the flow of manpower policy in the mid and long term plans. In terms of the actual status of assistant manpower in kindergarten and childcare center, manpower supply and demand, working hour, teacher and children ration, the status of assistant and substitute teacher by region, and budget have suggested.
Major countries system and policy based on OECD, EU, and ILO have summarized. Researcher has summarized assistant manpower policy in Denmark, Slovenia, France, and concluded the implication.
Based on the opinions of experts related to kindergartens and childcare centers, researcher conducted a Delphi survey upon employment status and entry route, welfare system and environment, duty and education, difficulties and improvements and made policy priority. Frequency analysis and cross analysis have conducted on actual working condition, geographical features, employment status, entry route, and welfare system, duty, education and difficulties by institutions and job positions.
Conclusion and Policy Proposal are following.
First. in terms of assistant manpower employment status and entry route, providing nationwide objective standard in order to employ assistant manpower in kindergartens and childcare centers, enhancing the policy of assistant manpower considering specialty and features of ECE institutions, conducting large-scale survey including temporary position workers, enlarging the scale of full time positions.
Second, in terms of welfare system and environment, enhancing Social Security and Welfare Benefits.
Third, in terms of duty and education, providing duty clarification and career manuel for assistant manpower, abolishing the discriminations by subdividing the tasks, suggesting specific standard regarding the role and task of reaching staff, expanding the opportunity of the training that improves work capacity
Fourth, in terms of difficulties and improvements, establishing stable labor costs supports for assistant manpower, needs of human rights education to change the recognition of full time positions and operators.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 이론적 배경
Ⅲ. 해외 주요국의 정책 동향 및 쟁점
Ⅳ. 유치원과 어린이집 보조인력 실태 및 요구분석