Korea Institute of Child Care and Education(KICCE)’s KICCE POLL, which completes its first research in 2017, has surveyed the public perceptions and attitudes on the current Korean Childcare policy to grasp the changing modes and trends of the public opinions. The goals for this research are to collect basic data about the public opinions on present childcare issues and utilize the information for developing and implementing concerned policies.
The detailed objectives are as follows:
First, we investigated the public satisfaction, effectiveness, perception and attitude of the public about current policies and values related to child - raising, and suggested policy tasks that meet the needs of policy consumers through the survey results.
Second, when major policy issues occur, we conduct public opinion polls, monitoring each policy, and suggesting the right policy direction through collecting opinions from consumers.
Third, through the survey for the next 5 years, we tried to give good implications to the childcare policy by analyzing the changes in the satisfaction and recognition of the policy consumer according to the child care support policy.
The regular survey was conducted on 3,000 people sampled from 40,225,441 people between 15~74 in their ages. In the case of regular surveys, the items were composed mainly of becoming a parent, child-rearing, marriage, parenting happiness, early childhood education and childcare policy, policy satisfaction, and low birth rate policy.
Occasional surveys were conducted on 500 parents with infant children. In the case of occasional surveys, it consisted of ① ECEC service policy, ② nurturing within the family, and opinions about work-family compatibility.
In addition, thisstudy newly constructed a parent monitoring unit (i-POLL). Also the KICCE POLL homepage was reorganized. Through this, we aimed to share the policy demanders' online policy suggestion and the results of the survey.
The research outcomes as follows:
First, The subjects in this study responded that it was happy and expected to be a parent (3.53 points on average of 5 points). However, younger respondents aged 10 to 20 had significantly lower expectations for parenting than those aged 50 to 60 or older (3.45 points in the 60s, 3.37 points in the 50s, 3.03 points in the 20s, and 10 points in the 10s : 3.06 points).
Second, Many respondents agree that education is needed to be a parent before giving birth to a child (3.53 points on the 5-point average). In particular, In the younger age group of 10 ~ 20, the need for parent education before childbirth was highly recognized.
Third, as a result of asking the actual ratio of childcare and housekeeping, mother 6.86: father 3. 14 in the case of child care. In the case of the housework, it was found that mother 6.81: father 3. 19. However, the ideal ratio of child-rearing share for the same subjects with infant children was 5.83 for mothers and 4.17 for fathers. The share of housework was 5.84 for mother and 4.16 for father.
Fourth, there is a strong tendency to think that marriage is a prerequisite for the birth of children. However, in the case of the unmarried, the younger the younger, the higher the percentage agreed to be able to have children without marriage. The perception that marriage should be presupposed for childbirth is gradually changing.
Fifth, the difficulties of child rearing were mostly the burden of child care, job concurrence and child rearing cost.
Sixth, as a result of the survey on the economic value of child rearing, the highest percentage of respondents answered that they were between KRW101,000 and KRW2,000,000, with an average of KRW235.20 million.
Seventh, Respondents recognized that the primary responsibility for the care of infants and young children was the responsibility of their parents. However, the lower the age, the more the state wants to be responsible for the child rearing.
Eighth, in the government 's priorities for financial support for child - care support, discrimination support (48.8%) was slightly higher than that of all - level support (42.1%).
Ninth, in relation to child abuse, there are many demands such as strengthening punishment, education, and improvement of working environment of teachers. In low age group, punishment reinforcement ratio is high, and in high age group, education ratio is relatively high There was a difference in policy priority among generations.
Tenth, in the case of additional tax burden for infants and toddlers, the rate of additional burdens was higher in those under 40 years old, while those in their 40s or older had more. Also, when the children were infants and young children, the pros and cons were the opposite.
Eleventh, public support for childcare for the government was high in priority for expanding national and public kindergartens and day care centers, improving service quality, and increasing parental leave and flexible work arrangements. Particularly, the government's work-family reconciliation policy needs to have a close cooperation system between the government and the enterprise so that the degree of assistance and intention to use it will be very high and the actual utilization possibility can be increased.
Twelfth, as a result of examining the importance and policy effects of the government's low birth control policies, it is important to note that the importance of youth employment residence measures, pregnancy and childbirth support policies, child care support policies and work- . On the other hand, in terms of the actual policy effect on responding to the low birth rate, the expectation level compared to the importance level was low at the normal level (early stage of 3 points).
Thirteen, 45.5% agreed on the need to pay child allowances. However, 40.7% of respondents answered that they do not know the necessity of introduction. Therefore, it will be necessary to discuss future payment methods, age, and amount of payment continuously.
Fourteenth, the government's policy on childcare support for infants and toddlers was generally moderate. In the twenties to thirties, the satisfaction level was lower than the other groups when the children were infants and dual - income families. Despite the various efforts of the government, the realistic perception of the citizens was rather low.
Fifteenth, parents with infants and toddlers are most likely to be 2-3 years old when they first use the institution, and about 30 months are appropriate. They found that an average of 8 hours was appropriate for the day care centers.
Sixteenth, parents perceived that the number of infants per teacher was high in the daycare center, and there were many responses that the standard of the nursery room per infant is small.
Seventeenth, survey results showed that More than half (56.0%) of the children were receiving some help from their grandparents.
Eighteenth, more than 65% of the respondents indicated that the support level should be higher than the current level of support. Especially, it was higher in the 20s, the unemployed, and the non-working households where the economic situation was relatively inadequate.
The followings are policy recommendations based on the research outcomes:
First, in order to cope with the deepening of low birthrate, there is a need to communicate and spread the positive value of parenting to young people. There is a need to incorporate the value of parenting and childrearing into educational content while introducing mandatory parental education before giving birth. It is necessary to prepare policies such as parent education service to make parent education accessible to parents of blind people who have difficulties in participating in parent education.
In addition to the efforts to spread the consciousness of equitable sharing of parenting, child rearing and housework, social and institutional recognition of various families is needed.
Third, it is necessary to further strengthen the responsibility of the state in infant child care and education. In addition to striving to strengthen the nation's accountability and publicity in childcare and early childhood education, it is necessary to increase the geographical accessibility of the parents in order to use the nearest institutions (nurseries, kindergartens).
Fourth, as changes in the supply system of day care centers and kindergartens are expected to change with the increase in low fertility rates, careful consideration should be given to utilization demand and supply in the national level.
Fifth, It is necessary to actively promote various cost support policies such as government childcare support for 0-5 year olds, the 0-5 year old childcare allowance support policy, the extended time childcare fee support (time extension, night childcare, Part-time childcare support, kindergarten after-school courses, etc.
Sixth, it is necessary to strengthen punishment for child abuse, and to strengthen and expand child abuse prevention education targeting both parents and teachers.
Seventh, it is necessary to set the basic hours of daycare to 8 hours and to differentiate cost support such as parental burden according to the characteristics of the household, taking into consideration the proper time of daycare and the appropriate time of use.
Eighth, it is necessary to reduce the number of infants per childcare teacher and to raise the standard of the nursery room per infant.
Ninth, it is necessary that the expansion and rearing allowance of the parenting support center for the improvement of the support for home care in the home should be increased.
Tenth, it is necessary to raise the effectiveness of the work-family reconciliation policy by activating parental leave for the reconciliation of work and family, expanding kindergartens and kindergartens of good quality, and expanding opportunities to use caring services.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 육아정책 이슈 및 선행연구 분석
Ⅲ. KICCE 정기 여론조사 분석 결과
Ⅳ. KICCE 수시 여론조사 분석 결과
Ⅴ. 정책 제언