1. Background and Purpose of the study
This study started from a perspective that governmental policy support is necessary as demand for childcare services varies due to social and environmental changes which users’ household faces. Continuation of low birthrate results in decrease in number of the service users and specific needs and preferences for childcare services change as various policies for childcare services support change.
In this regard, this study dived into current usage and plans of childcare services and investigated the correlation between demand of the services and policy changes. It has its purpose to suggest governmental policies to reflect the changes in demand.
2. Research Method
This study interviewed 1648 panels of active users of childcare services and inquired current usage of the services, demand, acknowledgement of benefit of policy support for such services, satisfaction, and need for improvements.
The study is planned to interview the same panel total 5 times until year of 2022; first interview was conducted in 2018.
In addition to the user interviews, discussions among service providers such as directors of child care & educational institutions, managers of childcare support center and healthy family support center were hold to support the data.
The main results of this study are as follow:
First, when people asked with questions about ideal childcare service, in general they tend to think that household with child between age of 0 and 1 prefer parental care rather than to use the care services, with child between age of 2 and 4 prefer pre-kindergarten, and with child between age of 5 and 6 prefer kindergarten. Household with child who attends elementary school prefers private institutional education for their child after school; being that said, It is clear that private institutional education plays an important role as childcare services especially for household with 1st,2ndand3rdgradeelementarystudents.
Second, even when most of service users are utilizing services as they prefer the most, some users could not use their preferred the most services. The main reasons for those users are ‘working parents’, ‘cost’, and ‘lack of accessibility’.
Third, policies to support childcare services either implemented in 2018 or planned to be implemented increase service users’ willingness to use the service. Specifically, Moon government’s ‘increase in number of public pre-kindergarten/kindergarten’ affects parents’ willingness to use such public services. Moreover, increase in maternity leave payment and support for paternity leave also positively influence the user willingness. However, it seems that implementation of standard childcare service operating hours will negatively affect the users.
Fourth, polices like maternity/paternity leave and flexible working hours that support parents to have ‘time’ to care their children are well-known but less utilized among users. When compared with double income household, single income household’s satisfaction toward policies was low.
Fifth, among polices that supports childcare services, household with infant/children feels that they need more monetary support from the government, especially when the child is infant or when household has single source of income. However, double income household or household with children feels that government need to provide more support for institutional childcare education service. Based on the users’ situation, the need for governmental support for childcare services varied.
Sixth, parents seem to value ‘childcare taken care by government’ the most as direction of government policy, however they seem to have less value on ‘free education for all household regardless of their income’. They also think that the most important purpose of the policy is ‘to build atmosphere for all children to be raised healthy.’
The final, in the public side, parents wanted ‘public childcare institution expansion’ in ‘childcare educational service’ sector and they wanted ‘broaden criteria for financial support beneficiary for individual care service’ and ‘increase in number of public care service provider’ in ‘individual childcare service’ sector. Parents also wanted ‘freely utilizing the service without any interference by others’ in ‘parenting time support’ sector and ‘increase in financial support’ as well.
4. Policy Suggestion
Based on these main results, this study suggested the following for Korea’s childcare policies:
First, directions to support the childcare service demand are ‘public childcare service infrastructure expansion’, ‘service user satisfaction improvement’, and ‘responsiveness of policy to support change in demand’.
Second, policy to support the change in demand shall consider strategy of ‘select and concentrate’. For household with infant at age between 0 and 1, the study suggested policy to expand service infrastructure and improve accessibility of the service, so it can encourage parents to directly engage in childcare. For household with child at age between 2 and 6, the study suggested to expand public child care and educational service infrastructure and improve the service and to care elementary students, public care infrastructure expansion and services improvement were suggested.
Third, improvement of support for parents to care for their children is suggested as core assignment for policy makers. Specifically, through maternity/paternity leave payment increase, not only double income household, but also single income household and single parent household shall be guaranteed with sufficient time to care for their children.
Table Of Contents
Ⅰ. 서 론
Ⅱ. 연구의 배경
Ⅲ. 영유아 가구의 육아서비스 이용 실태
Ⅳ. 영유아 가구의 육아서비스 이용 수요
Ⅴ. 영유아 가구의 육아서비스 지원 정책관련 의견과 요구
Ⅵ. 육아서비스 수요에 대응한 정책 방안