l With the implementation of free childcare policy, a higher demand for childcare centers and extensive waiting list for childcare service are expected. Under the circumstance, the families with actual demands would have difficulty in using childcare centers. The main purpose of this study was to provide adjusted guidelines for enrollment priority by investigating the level of child care demands by each household type.
l Data was collected from literature review, statistics on Korean families, and a parent survey. Literature was reviewed on waiting list of childcare centers and their regulations. Laws and policies on childcare support were also examined with foreign case studies. Raw data on economically active population from Statistics Korea and household analysis by types of work were re-analyzed. A survey completed by parents with young children ages 0-5 (n=1,000) was analyzed to examine their childcare context and needs.
Current status of enrollment waiting by household types
l About two thirds of parent respondents said they had an experience of being on the waiting list to enroll their children in childcare centers (65.4%). The majority of them were living in large cities (74.7%); and most of them waited to register for public/government-funded childcare centers (68.3%).
l Except for adoptees, children of working parents accounted for the highest percentage (75.3%) of those who were on the waiting list, followed by children from parents with disability (68.8%), and children from parents with illness (66.7%).
l Average number of institutions they are waiting for is 4.7 for children cared for by family members, and 4.1 for children with working parents.
The need for adjusting enrollment priority by household types
l When asked about their necessity of enrollment priority (using a 5-point scale), families responded the following: children of parents with disabilities (4.53), children of parents with illness (4.39), children of low-income single parent (4.37), children living in child welfare facilities (4.19), basic livelihood security recipients (4.08), and children cared for by family members (4.05). Children of working parents showed 4.03 points, similar to those living with grandparents.
Enrollment priority of working parents’ children
l Respondents indicated, children of parents with disabilities (89.7%), children of parents with illness (86.5%), and children of low-income single parent (83.2%) need to be prioritized in childcare center enrollment
To improve the efficacy of national expenditure on young children, this study recommends adjusted guidelines for enrollment priority reflecting actual child-care demands. The following considerations are suggested:
l Option 1. Give priority to all children with working parents, then give weighted priority points to the following groups of children in the order of: A) children with low-income single parent and basic livelihood security recipients, B) children from second lowest income class families, and children living with grandparents, and C) children who have two or more siblings and multicultural families.
l Option 2. Limit the top priority groups to the following: children with working parents, children from low-income single parent, children living in child welfare facilities, and basic livelihood security recipients.
l Other options: Establish parents’ working hour limit. Children get priority only when their parents work at least 15 hours or 3 days a week or more. Additionally, children of parents with illness and children cared by family members get top priority.
l Also, regional measures need to be considered. For large cities, top priority can be given to children with working parents, children of parents with illness, and children living in child welfare facilities. For other regions, give priority to children who have two or more siblings and multicultural backgrounds.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 연구의 배경
Ⅲ. 보육 수요 관련 법률 및 제도
Ⅳ. 가구 특성별 보육 수요
V. 어린이집 우선 입소 필요도
Ⅵ. 어린이집 입소 우선순위 내실화 방안