□ 2019년 7월, 유치원교육과정과 보육과정이 공통과정으로 통합된 누리과정이 제정된 지 7년 만에 개정 고시됨.
- 이번 개정은 2017년 12월 교육부에서 ‘출발선 평등’을 실현하기 위해 발표한 유아교육 혁신방안을 반영한 것임. 유아가 중심이 되는 놀이중심 교육과정의 개정과 유아의 자유놀이 권장 및 관찰과 기록 등 유아와의 상호작용이 강조된 교육과정(누리과정)이라는 개정 방향을 갖고 있음.
□ 본 연구는 국가적 차원에서 많은 비용이 투입된 누리과정에 대해 지속적인 모니터링이 필요하다는 취지에서 기획된 5년차 연속과제임.
- 2018년도에 이미 1차 년도 연구가 수행된 바, 2차 년도인 2019년에는 개정 누리과정에 따른 「3-5세 누리과정 유아관찰척도」 지표의 개정과 척도의 타당성 검증을 위한 시범 연구를 수행하도록 설계되어 있음.
- 현재 누리과정 후속지원 사업으로서 개정 누리과정 시범운영 유치원과 어린이집이 운영 중임. 개정 누리과정의 시범 적용을 현장 수용도와 보편성을 검증함으로써 향후 성공적 안착을 돕기 위한 것임.
□ 2019년은 처음 유치원과 어린이집에 입학하는 3세 유아의 경우 개정 누리과정을 먼저 경험하는 집단과 기존 누리과정을 경험하는 집단이 동시대에 존재하는 상황이므로, 이에 따른 변화추이와 양상을 기록으로 남기는 것은 매우 의미 있는 일이라 여겨짐. 이러한 결과는 개정 누리과정으로 인한 효과와 유아관찰척도의 개정 방향을 정하는 토대가 될 것임.
□ 본 연구는 육아정책연구소에서 개발되어 신뢰도와 타당도가 이미 검증된 「3~5세 누리과정 유아관찰척도」를 개정 누리과정의 취지와 방향에 맞게 개정하여, 개정된 척도의 타당성 검증을 주요 목적으로 함. This study, the second year of a five consecutive year project with a purpose of continuous monitoring of Nuri Curriculum, which is a national integrated curriculum for children aged 3-5 years old in South Korea, is designed to revise a 「KICCE’s Child Observation Index for 3-5 years」 in accordance to the revised Nuri Curriculum in 2019 and carry out a pilot study of validity and reliability of the revised index. Given that pilot kindergarten and childcare center for 2019 Nuri Curriculum are currently in operation, this study is expected to help the successful settlement of the revised Nuri Curriculum by verifying on-site acceptance and universality of the KICCE’s index. Furthermore, the year of 2019 is characterized when two groups are found at the same time: one group of 3-year-old children who experience the 2019 revised Nuri Curriculum for the first time and the other of children over 3 years old who have previously exposed to the existing Nuri Curriculum. In this respect, examining various aspects of changing trends will be a foundation for figuring out the effectiveness of the Nuri Curriculum and changes in revision direction of the KICCE’s index. That is, the aims of this study are to amend the existing 「the KICCE’s Child Observation Index for 3-5 years」 which has previously proven its validity and reliability, to conduct a validity analysis, and to suggest its practical use plans.
In order to proceed with this study, a variety of research methods were completed including literature review, expert advisory meetings, workshops for kindergarten and childcare center’ staff and statistical analysis. In particular, the statistical analyses were conducted with [Research 1] and [Research 2]. As a preliminary step for amendment of the child observation index, [Research 1] was done by using the existing index with slight modification and sought to grasp and compare changes, aspects, and difficulties on teacher observation by examining children enrolled in both pilot and general institutes.
[Research 2] was to revise the KICCE’s index according to the latest 2019 Nuri Curriculum’s content and direction. For this, it was in the [Research 2] that a 「newly revised KICCE Child Observation Index」 was on a trial basis tested by teachers at the pilot institutes and its results were used as the basis for validity test.
The KICCE child observation index revised in this study is constructed as follows. Firstly, in concordance with the direction of the latest 2019 Nuri Curriculum, evaluation elements presented in each area of the curriculum are selected without children’s age and the observation is conducted on a 4-point scale. Secondly, a wide variety of observation examples are presented within the newly revised Index for better and efficient observation of children’s play and daily activity. Thirdly, the results of the experience and learning of each content area are ultimately monitored in accordance with the goals of the revised Nuri Curriculum. Lastly, in terms of developing the observation index, the elements to be observed in each area are derived and the monitor is accordingly made.
The major results of this study are as follows. In [Research 1], firstly, the pre- and post-tendency of the Child Observation Index according to the types of institution(including pilot and general kindergartens and childcare centers) were compared. As a result, the average score of the whole area rose from 2.3 to 2.5 in the case of 3 years old, and also the score of 4-year-old children from 2.3 to 2.4. And, throughout both 3- and 4-year-old children, the scores of pre- and post-analysis of childcare center were higher than that of kindergarten, showing a significant difference according to the type of establishment. Next, regarding pre- and post-observation of children’s creativity, the score for 3-year-old was increased from 3.3 to 3.5 and the average score of 4-year-old also was risen from 3.4 to 3.5. The score of kindergarten(3.6) was higher than that of childcare center(3.4), which likewise showed there is a statistically significant difference by the type of establishment.
Meanwhile, a set of questions were asked to comprehend the 3- and 4-year-old homeroom teachers’ opinions about the KICCE’s index. As for the question of the adequacy of the KICCE’s index for child observation, the proportion of “adequate” answer was highest. Besides, to the question of the importance of revising the child observation index to present the level that children are expected to reach for their age, most of the teachers answered that it is important to revise the child observation index in such a way. And, regarding the necessity of providing a mobile application or computerized system for the revised Nuri Curriculum, the majority of responses from both 3- and 4-year-old teachers were 'necessary'.
In [Research 2], the validity and reliability of the revised KICCE’s index were mainly examined, respectively. Overall, the correlation coefficient of each item of the entire area was significant. The results of the difference between two groups(top 27% and bottom 27% based on the total score, each) on the observation score of individual items were analyzed by t-test, which showed significant differences on whole item within the five areas. Also, throughout whole areas, high reliability coefficients were obtained between 0.89~0.94. With higher internal consistency among the items in each of the five areas, it was found that all the items reliably measured the same concept domain.
「The KICCE Child Observation Index」 amended in this study can be used as the following. First, in terms of children's education and development, it can be used as a method for monitoring the effectiveness of the revised Nuri Curriculum. This index is expected to be used as a proof for investigating the effectiveness of Nuri Curriculum through examination of the early admission stage of 3-year-old and the end of 5-year-old respectively, and consideration of smooth linkages between pre-school and elementary school. Second, for a better application and promotion of the Index, it can be utilized to manualize the Child Observation Index as well as to plan and build a computerized system for the Index.