The experience of infancy has a crucial impact on the whole life-cycle of a person, and much of the quality of infancy period depends on the parenting environment that are mostly provided by the primary caregivers and at home. The home parenting environments of infancy include all types of care, reactions, and stimuli received from the caregivers as well as the physical home environment. The family is the place where the infant is born as a member of a family and grows as a member of society. However, there has been a lack of understanding about the concept of parenting environment that parents should provide.
In this research, we used several research methods. First, we reviewed the literature on the factors that affect on the infant development, and the characteristics of the infant development. Second, we conducted the Delphi research with second time survey with 25 experts who are with the research on infant development, index development. Third, we conducted the home visiting survey with 300 families for main survey and 20 families for preliminary study. The home visiting survey included home observation survey on physical home environment and infant-parent interaction, and questionnaire survey on human parenting support environment.
Researchers categorized the Infant home rearing environment into 3 areas, which are physical home environment, caregivers’ characteristics, and human parenting support environment, and developed the detailed scales to measure the quality of home environment that the main caregivers provide to 1 year old infants. Followings are some of the key results based on home visiting survey with 300 families. First, for the physical home environment area, the percentage of family with ‘good condition’ on the autonomy facilitation environment was as high as 85.6%, although that of ‘the safety environment’ was as low as 44.7%. Second, the percentage of the family with ‘good condition’ for the sub-indicators under ‘Infant-caregiver interaction and caregivers’ parenting behaviors’ section were mostly near or more than 80%. However, the percentage of the family with ‘good condition’ on basic habit formation and outdoor play opportunities was quite low as 63.4% and 68.7% respectively. Lastly, as for the spouse co-parenting, although the percentage of fathers saying ‘yes’ on participation of infant playing was high as 90.3%, that of housework sharing was as low as 60.2%. In addition, researchers verified the content validity, concurrent validity, and construct validity(exploratory factor analysis). Based on those validity analysis, 8 items were deleted, and some of index were partly regrouped and renamed.
To enhance the quality of home rearing environment of family with infants, national-wised efforts are needed. First, establishing the monitoring system to manage and support the infant home parenting environment is asked for. To make this possible, there should be the system to diagnose the families with vulnerable parenting and the training system to cultivate the qualified interviewers is needed as well. Second, based on the results of diagnosis on home parenting environment using the current index, policy need to support the families that have rooms for improvement. For example, as we found there were many families with low level on the home safety and restriction of media usage of infants, including these topics on the parenting education program should be considered. Lastly, social atmosphere to create the supportive environment including the fathers’ participation on parenting and workplace culture should be accompanied.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 이론적 배경
Ⅲ. 1세 영아 가정양육환경 지표개발
Ⅳ. 2차 지표안을 활용한 영아 가정양육환경 분석
Ⅴ. 지표분석을 통한 최종(3차) 지표 시안
Ⅵ. 요약 및 제언