The Panel Study on Korean Children(PSKC) provides longitudinal and cross-sectional data to enrich the related fields and to serve as the resources for establishing and improving child care policies. We discuss the academic and policy implications of this study.
The 6th year wave of PSKC consisted of annual study, in-depth study, and international conference. Annual study Annual child survey, parent interviews and questionnaires, and a web-based questionnaire for teacher of the child. There were 1,662 panel families participating in the 6th year survey with retention rate of 77.3%. In the in-depth study, cognitive and language development test were administered to about 23% of panel children. The international conference took place with professor J. Belsky's keynote speech.
Based on the data collected for the past five years, this year's technical analysis was done in six categories; the characteristics of child development, parenting, household, child care services, local community, and child care policies.
1) Characteristics of child development: The average weight of the children was 16.97kg with average height of 103.79cm. The children slept for 9 hours and 56 minutes by getting up at 7:29 AM and going to bed at 21:31 PM on the average. The typical day of the children consisted of 6.88 hours at kindergarten or child care center, 0.16 hours at after school institutes or for private lessons, 0.31 hours for studying at home, 1.16 hours for outdoor play, 2.08 hours for indoor play, and 1.32 hours for washing, dressing up and other daily maintenance.
2) Characteristics of parenting: The highest percentage of parents were between 30 and 39 years old. 36.1% of the mothers consumed alcohol once or less a month and 37.2% of the fathers drank 2-4 times a month. 98.3% of mothers and 49.1% of fathers were currently non-smokers. 94.7% of the fathers and 43.0% of the mothers have been employed. Mothers worked 7.83 hours per day, 4.81 days on weekdays and 6.79 hours, 1.16 days on weekends. Mother rated marital satisfaction as 3.68 and fathers did 4.01 on a 5-point scale. Regarding father's child rearing participation, mothers rated 3.57 and fathers did 3.56.
3) Characteristics of the household: Not counting the panel child, the average number of family members was 3.05 with 90.2% of the family made up of parents and child. The per month income for total household income was 484,920,000 Won with mother's earned income of 203,940,000 Won, property and financial income of 26,670,000 Won, public income of 5,100,000 Won, and transfer income of 8,010,000 Won.
4) Characteristics of child care services: Child care service that children of age four used most was child care center (60.7%), followed by cram school running over half day and personal care. Ratings of the classroom environment in spatial layout, adequacy for development, diversity and sufficiency were 4 or more on 5-point scales.
5) Characteristics of the local community: 71.0% of the families have lived in apartment complex and 22.8% in a single house in a local residential area. On a 5-pont scale the adequacy of the living area's environment for child rearing was rated as 3.3; the adequacy of the child support institutions in the local community was 3.1; and the adequacy of the private institutes was 2.9. Park and walkways showed highest convenience for using public leisure facilities with 3.1 and toy rental services and art galleries showed lowest of 2.1.
6) Characteristics of child care policies: The highest percentage, 40.4% of the participants have received no-tuition child care or early childhood education, followed by 27.9% for physical checkups, and 27.3% for vaccination. The beneficiaries assessed the child care support policies that they had received as 'satisfied' and above. At workplace, employees used maternity leave most at 24.3%, child care leave at 19.8% and paternity leave at 11.3%.
84.7% and 92.2% of the mothers responded that they were aware of the child care allowance for children of age 0-2 and no-tuition child-care or early childhood education. The highest rates, 53.1% and 46.1%, responded 'extremely necessary' for the each of the policies. 88.0% were aware of the Nuri curriculum (integrated curriculum for both child care and education) for children of age 5. 71.65% heard the Nuri curriculum to be implemented for the ages of 3-4. The highest response showed 'extremely necessary' at respective percentage of 69.6% and 64.4% for the two curriculums.
Based on the data accumulated from the years 1 through 5, three topics were examined using longitudinal analysis. The topics were; child care and use of child care institutions in relation to daily time use; father's changing attitude towards child care and its influence; and changing trends in mother's employment and the decision factors. The results showed that when mothers are employed or are full time workers, their children sleep late and short. Another trend found is that the lower the family income or lower the academic achievement of the parents is, the longer the children are exposed to media. The degree of father's participation in child rearing was related to the father's academic achievement, characteristics of labor, employment of the mother, and family income. The factors influencing mother's employment were mother's academic achievement, position at work, type of occupation, family income and number of children.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 6차년도 패널조사 및 심층조사
Ⅲ. 5차년도(2012) 자료의 기초분석
Ⅳ. 국정과제 관련 주제별 종단 분석