Since the beginning of the fourth industrial revolution, a convergent talent training, which is endowed with curriculum of the future and development for creativity and personality, has been the center of attention. In order to create the talented manpower, education that emphasizes on creativity and diversity is needed rather than outdated standard. Korea has consistently developed a national curriculum since the first kindergarten curriculum in 1969, and it has supported Early Childhood Education and Care(ECEC). A field of ECEC has adopted the Nuri program since 2011.
Despite the fact that there have been positive outcomes, the fields highly demand for the better quality of the curriculum management and liberal and diverse curriculum since the introduction of the Nuri program. According to ECEC professions, the curriculum has lost its characters and become uniform education since the Nuri program began, but some other states that it must maintain stability as a national curriculum. Autonomy and diversity in curriculum means that each kindergarten and preschool should design their own program, so parents and child can find a proper institution based on their needs and satisfactory level. The quality of ECEC institution varies depending on the management of the curriculum. Therefore, this study analyzes the present and actual state of the Nuri program in the field of ECEC and provides the solutions to reach its diversity in the field in order to raise the quality of the Nuri program.
Literature review, expert’s opinion survey, social big data analysis, case survey, interview, and survey were performed to accomplish the purpose of the research. First, expert’s opinion survey was conducted by focus group and Delphi expert method. Delphi expert method derived a prior policy based on 32 experts. The experts took participated in the survey for three times and produced CVR value. Second, social big data analysis searched for online news articles and online comments from 2013 to 2016, the data included word cloud analysis, semantic network analysis, and keyword transition analysis by year. There were total 58,441 articles based on the main keywords, ‘the Nuri Curriculum’, ‘Early Childhood Education’, ‘Child Care’, ‘Child Care Program’, and ‘ECE curriculum’ and the researchers selected 17,651 effective articles. Third, the outstanding cases of the Nuri curriculum of six kindergartens and four childcare centers were analyzed upon the case survey and the interview, and the researcher interviewed the principles, the teachers, and the parents of the ECE institutions regarding the critical success factor s and demands of ECE curriculum for the better quality of the Nuri curriculum. Last, the survey was targeted at 868 teachers of ECE institutions regarding states and demands of the Nuri curriculum management and development direction. Plus, the researchers investigated needs assessments to analyze the prior policy regarding standard, diversity, and the quality of the Nuri curriculum.
The following is the research result.
First, according the literature review, there were the concepts of autonomy, decentralization, and diversity of curriculum in the range of the national curriculum, ECEC institution evaluation, nationwide education guideline and plan. Moreover, OECD countries have managed national standards to meet the needs of the fields. Plus, many well-known advanced researches and policy reports have proved that it is essential to appeal exceptional quality curriculum of each ECE institution while operating the institution based on the Nuri curriculum.
Second, according to the Big Data Analysis, since the beginning of the Nuri curriculum (2013-2016), it has been known to be free education and care; therefore, the idea of the national curriculum gained low attention in public. Free education led high ECEC institution enrollment. When side effects of the Nuri curriculum occurred in 2015, the policy changed a direction to family child care and began to discuss again regarding low birth rate. In the range of the Nuri curriculum, there was a high demand among netizen regarding increasing the quality of teacher and institution, and also child abuse, ECE institution corruption, issue of high extra tuition, and CCTV issue got much attention as well. Among the curriculum and program, 4-5 hour Nuri program course management and gender equality education were mostly discussed.
Third, after surveying 868 teachers in ECE institution, participants agreed that the curriculum in the field has standardized since the Nuri curriculum began. Teachers in kindergarten seemed to understand the curriculum in depth than teachers in preschool. The teachers stated that there were improvements in less morning extra curricular activity, increase of outdoor play, decrease of parents’ financial burden, increase of education and care quality, and equality of education and care; on the other hand, autonomy and diversity in the Nuri curriculum relatively indicated low performance among the teachers. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain autonomy of teacher’s own curriculum management. The main problem that the researcher has found is that all teachers must follow the Nuri’s schedule, and it caused the curriculum turn out to be standardized.
In terms of the assessment, ‘Solution for autonomy of teacher on curriculum construction’ and ‘revealing the assessment result of child learning and development and sharing it with members’ were observed with priority given to the quality of the Nuri curriculum. In terms of the curriculum, ‘guaranteeing the autonomy of each institutional curriculum formation in order to apply the value of curriculum that meets child potential’ and ‘the Nuri must be designed autonomically based on the standard of school value’ were analyzed as prior issues. In terms of curriculum accessibility, policy must be supported by ‘formation and vitalization of consultative group on regional unit’.
Fourth, a close look at the result of prior policy and opinion of 32 policy experts, curriculum management and guideline, administrative and financial support, legal system, domain of organization/management/research turned out to be the prior policy.
Fifth, in the outstanding case of curriculum management diversity at kindergarten and daycare, success and difficulty depended on the types of ECE institution, but the Nuri curriculum was broadly used for the standards of learning and development at the institutions, and also they strived hard to enhance the quality of curriculum of their own institutions. The main themes are devotion of ECEC principle, Reformulating the curriculum and comprehending the Nuri curriculum as the standard, emphasizing emergent curriculum, practical education that learns physically, parent involvement and child-centered management, curriculum centered institution, securing the set up time, supporting a teacher, multi-cultural education, innovative mind of a principle, restructuring the Nuri curriculum of teacher and self-reflection.
The following are policy proposals and strategies.
First, enforcing identity of national standard curriculum and building the concept of curriculum: settling the Nuri policy as early childhood standard policy, changing the paradigm into ‘the Nuri curriculum for all of us’
Second, minimizing the volume of the national standard, the Nuri program and enforcing the ability of teachers' reconstruction of curriculum and regionalization: focussing on the curriculum with the early childhood learning and developmental standards as the center, reviewing a legal revision of amendment for enforcing the diversity of curriculum, improving the statement of the Nuri curriculum, ‘2. Management’, ‘3. Teaching-learning method’, distributing and publishing data on an example of various reconstructions and diversity in the form of a teaching guideline.
Third, enforcing educational content regarding child right, multiple cultures, and communal life; reflecting educational purpose, target statement, and content element which aim communal life, suggesting a voluntary learning case which is based on world citizen education in the Nuri curriculum teacher’s edition.
Fourth, encouraging diversification of operating hour and form at an institution.
Fifth, protecting the eight-hour day and providing an ordinance in order to secure class set up time for teachers; enacting an amendment in order to secure 3 hour set up time and supplying manpower at an institution.
Sixth, changing a frame of teacher training system and providing a financial provision when hiring an experienced teacher; enlarging and arranging a research teacher who supplies curricular research and institutional curriculum training, providing a financial provision when hiring an experienced teacher, systematizing a teacher training system to reach teacher’s competence, developing the Nuri curriculum collaborative teaching model of ECEC and ECSE (early childhood special education) teacher.
Seventh, demanding change and improvement of the assessment system; resetting the curriculum direction of the existing kindergarten and childcare center evaluation system to pursuit diversification and autonomy of the curriculum
Eighth, Supporting and vitalizing a professional learning community and democratic governance; reducing a large-scale lecture in a Nuri curriculum teacher training, and enlarging regional teacher training so that teachers can be an main agent, establishing a circular scholarship organization which is based on teacher’s practical knowledge, observing how the field teachers comprehend and operate the curriculum and establishing a scholarship organization based on practical knowledge. The current scholarship and guidance inspection should examine law observance, facility and equipment and localize a role via administrative and financial transparency inspection
Ninth, enlarging inclusive education with disabilities in national kindergarten and childcare center and supplying manpower: installing a special education class at a new national kindergarten as a duty and offering an incentive for a private kindergarten when there is a special education class, providing a manpower support to supply a ECSE teacher in an afterschool program.
Tenth, steadily supporting the Nuri curriculum and reviewing a support plan for a foreign citizen in Korea.
Table Of Contents
Ⅱ. 이론적 배경
Ⅲ. 누리과정 운영 실태 및 인식 분석
Ⅳ. 우리나라 교육 보육과정 운영 다양화 사례