This study is the 5th wave of the 5-year (2018~2022) study, the KICCE Spending Survey, which collects information on the childrearing costs and usage of childcare services among childrearing households, for the purpose of informing policies that can help alleviate the cost burden associated with such spending. In addition to collecting the 5th data of the ongoing KICCE Spending Survey, in this year’s ‘KICCE Spending Survey: A Study of childrearing Costs and Demand for Childcare Services(V)’ we also utilize the time series data compiled over the 1st ~ 4th waves of the KICCE Spending Survey to conduct two in-depth analyses. The two main avenues of research methodology employed here are the ‘empirical survey’ and ‘focus group interviews (FGI)’ of childrearing parents. In the 5th wave of the KICCE Spending Survey, households where the youngest child had enrolled in elementary school or higher have been excluded. Thus, only households with ‘young children’ were included. Sample households from the 4th wave (2021) study were followed for the principal sample. A substitute sample of 151 households was included to replace households from the 4th wave that could not be tracked. Furthermore, an additional sample of 254 households with newborns (children born during the later half of 2021 or earlier half of 2022) was included in the 5th wave (2022) study, thus comprising a total of 1,730 households throughout the study. Of the 1,476 households from the 4th wave designated for tracking (excluding those whose youngest child was in elementary school or above), 89.8% were successfully tracked. In the questionnaire for the 5th wave study, question regarding childcare of elementary school students were removed. Furthermore, in view of the spread of COVID19 and the dampened impact of the pandemic on childcare practices, new questions have been included regarding households’ economic burden, changes in consumption expenditure, and changes in the usage of childcare services in relation to the pandemic. Additionally, with regards to new childcare support measures being introduced in 2022, questions were included to gauge the awareness and actual usage of households with young children, as well as their expectations regarding the potential alleviation of childcare costs. A total of 1,730 households were included in the sample of the current wave study, with a total of 2,395 young children. Analysis of the characteristics of respondent households revealed little overall changes compared to those from the previous wave. Thus, the characteristics of the intended sample were found to have been retained fairly well. The main findings of this study are organized into the following four categories: 1. Income Situation of Households with Young Children, 2. Expenditure on Living Expenses and Childcare among Households with Young Children, 3. Use of Childcare Services by Childrearing Households & Policy Demands, and 4. Findings from the In-Depth Analyses.
1. Income Situation of Households with Young Children - Among households with young children in the 5th wave (2022), the average monthly income was 5,005,000 KRW (net), down from 5,112,000 KRW in the 4th wave (2021). The continued rise in household income that was observed until the 3rd wave (2020) was found to have reversed since the 4th wave (2021). ∙ Income-wise, households with young children in the 5th wave (2022) were most reliant on ‘labor and business income’ (87.3%) and ‘public transfer income’ (5.8%). ∙ In the 5th wave, the average monthly income of dual-earner households was 5,855,000 KRW, or about 35% higher compared to the 4,328,000 KRW of single-earner households. This difference appears to be attributable to differences in ‘labor and business income’.
2. Expenditure on Living Expenses and Childcare among Households with Young Children - In the 5th wave, average monthly expenditure among households with young children was 3,032,000 KRW, down slightly from 3,040,000 KRW in the 4th wave (2021) but still higher than the figures from the 1st~3rd waves (2018~2020). ∙ Among households with young children, ‘food’ (31.2%) accounted for the largest share of living expenses. Expenditure on food has risen significantly since the 3rd wave (2020), which coincided with the early stages of the pandemic. ∙ Engel coefficient: 28.0 as of the 5th wave (2022) – lower than in the 4th wave (28.4) but still higher than in the 1st and 2nd waves ∙ Schwabe index: 8.3 as of the 5th wave, up again following the decrease to 8.1 in the 4th wave ∙ Angel coefficient: 26.9 as of the 5th wave(2022), down from 27.2 in the 4th wave, reaching a similar level to that in the 3rd wave - Total average monthly childcare costs for the 5th wave stood at 1,273,000 KRW, which is higher than observed in the 1st~3rd waves, albeit lower than in the 4th wave (1,276,000 KRW). ∙ Among households with young children, the share of ‘education / childcare costs’ was 334,000 KRW which was the second-lowest level (after the 3rd wave) observed throughout the 5-year study. - Average monthly ‘childcare costs for young children) in the 5th wave stood at 902,000 KRW, down slightly from 922,000 KRW in the 4th wave. ∙ Compared to the 4th wave, ‘education / childcare costs’ expenditure dropped noticeably in the 5th wave while the share of ‘family trips’ and ‘experiential learning’ under ‘leisure / cultural activities’ grew. In contrast, expenditure fell for items associated with indoor activities such as ‘toys’ or ‘book purchases’. - In the 5th wave (2022), the monthly average childcare cost per young child stood at 652,000 KRW, a level comparable to 655,000 KRW in the 4th wave. ∙ For children aged 1~5, young children were associated with higher childcare cost burdens compared to infants. That said, among infants, newborns (age 0) took up a higher share of living expenses compared to young children aged 1~2.
3. Use of Childcare Services by Childrearing Households & Policy Demands - Use of Childcare Facilities Offering Half-day or longer programs: ∙ Of the 2,393 young children observed, 77.4% made use of facilities offering half-day or longer programs. By type, childcare centers accounted for 49.2%, followed by 27.1% in kindergartens and 1.1% in study centers offering half-day or longer programs. 22.6% of young children were found to not use half-day or longer facilities. ∙ Use time: Among young children in half-day or longer facilities, weekly average use hours were 34.9 hours for childcare centers, 34.8 hours for kindergartens, and 35.1 hours for half-day or longer study centers. ∙ Cost of use: Average monthly fees paid to each type of facility was 71,000 KRW for childcare centers, 120,000 KRW for kindergartens, and 984,000 KRW for half-day or longer study centers. ∙ Satisfaction with service: The satisfaction score for childcare center and kindergarten users was 4.1 (5.0 being the highest), while that for half-day or longer study centers was 4.0.
- Absenteeism at half-day or longer facilities due to COVID19: ∙ Over the past year, the average number of days of absenteeism among young children enrolled in half-day or longer facilities due to COVID was 21.2. In descending order, the most frequent reasons for absenteeism (multiple choice) included ‘closing of facility (42.3%)’, ‘COVID19 positive case among cohabiting family (41.5%)’, ‘COVID19 positive case of child (40.2%)’. - Use of Part-time Private Education: ∙ Share by type: The most frequently reported type of facility used was short-term study centers (21.9%), followed by in-person workbooks (12.0%), culture centers (7.67%), non-visit type workbooks and activities (3.3%), visit type workbooks and activities (2.2%), and individual / group tutoring (1.9%). ∙ Use time and cost: The form of part-time private education associated with the longest use hours was ‘short-term study centers’ (3.9 hours per week), while that associated with the highest cost was 'individual / group tutoring’ (215,000 KRW per month). ∙ Satisfaction: Services that were associated with the highest satisfaction levels were 'individual / group tutoring' (4.0 out of a possible 5.0). - Use of In-Home Childcare and Parental Support Services ∙ Use of Individual Care Services: While ‘grandparents’ represented the predominant provider of individual care services, the 5th wave saw a rise in the share of ‘private caregivers’ compared to the first 4 waves. ∙ Use time and costs: Among households that hired private caregivers, they made use of a weekly average of 21.5 hours of services at a cost of 685,000 KRW, making it the costliest (per hour) option. ∙ In-home care by Parents: Parents spent an average of 8 hours 22 minutes per day for childcare on weekdays, and 13 hours and 3 minutes on weekends. The average hours of ‘in-person parental care’ where at least one parent was present stood at 8 hours and 16 minutes on weekdays and 13 hours and 2 minutes on weekends. ∙ Regarding the use of electronic devices (TV, PC, etc.) during in-home childcare, they were used for an average of 1 hours and 20minutes on weekdays and 2 hours and 6 minutes on weekends. About 76.0% of respondents reported allowing their children access to digital devices in order to help alleviate the in-home care burden. ∙ 6.8% of respondent households with young children reported having used toy rental services, while 16.5% reported having used book rental services and 8.7% reported having received assistance for childcare supplies. ∙ In relation to parental support services, take-up rates by type were as follows: parental training (10.2%), parental counseling (15.0%), and childrearing mentorship (1.0%). - Demands Regarding Childcare Support Services ∙ Throughout each wave of the 5-year study, the aspect of government support that parents found to be the most lacking was ‘childcare allowance’ and the expansion of other forms of cash subsidies. In terms of ‘parental support for childcare time’, demand has intensified greatly for ‘making access to programs automatic / mandatory’. - Parents found government support to be the most lacking during ‘early childhood (24 months~entry to elementary school, 61.0%), ‘infancy’ (26.2%), and ‘before and after childbirth’ (12.8%), with ‘cost support’ being the most-demanded type of support across all periods. - Addressing the Need for Emergency Care ∙ In the event of unforeseen need for emergency care, the most opted-for means of care was 'direct care by a parent' (86.5%). The most-demanded form of direct care among dual earner households was ‘use of paid days off’ (34.6%) followed by ‘use of family care leave / days off’ (34.5%), and ‘working from home’ (14.2%). ∙ Regarding the childcare support policy that needed improvement in the face of societal crisis situations, the most frequently-requested item was 'better support for family care leave' (39.9%).
4. In-Depth Analyses Findings - Time Series Analysis of Income and Expenditure, by Characteristics of Childrearing Households ∙ Merging the KICCE Spending Survey data from the first four waves (2018~2021) into panel data, we found an upward trend in income distributions. Expenditure levels on living expenses rose sharply in the 3rd wave while expenditure on education / childcare grew in step with household income growth. Meanwhile, healthcare / medical was found to increase over time. ∙ Composition of living expenses: Food expenditure accounted for a growing share among living expenses throughout the first 4 waves – this phenomenon was particularly apparent among low-income households. ∙ Trends in living expenses and the number of children: In terms of both share and level, items such as food, housing, education / childcare, healthcare / medical, and the purchase of toys / books tended to be greater among households with more children. - Impact of COVID19 on Childcare Expenditure ∙ Taking into account the extent of COVID19 infection by region, we looked at changes in household childcare expenditure prior to (2018~2019) and following (2020~2021) the pandemic. At the micro level, our estimates indicated that the pandemic had a statistically significant negative effect on childcare expenditure, where a 10% increase in COVID19 prevalence was associated with a 0.4% decrease in childcare costs.
In view of this finding, we considered several policy directions for alleviating the childcare cost burden for households with young children as follows: 1) strengthening a lifecycle-based approach to childcare support, 2) pursuing balanced development of childcare support across various types of childrearing situations, and 3) designing childcare support measures tailored to the characteristics of each household type. Specifically, these entail the following. First, strengthening a lifecycle-based approach to childcare support would include further financial support toward out-of-pocket expenses (transport fees, meals and snacks at facilities, costs for school entrance, etc.) associated with the use of childcare / educational services. Further measures include expanding the eligibility for Culture Nuri Cards to 3 years of age, income support for parents during pregnancy and childbirth, and improving support for parental allowance. Second, for the balanced development of childcare support across various types of childrearing situations, there will be a need to continue expanding public infrastructure and closing inter-regional gaps in facility accessibility to further support for surrogate care. We also proposed expanding cost support for in-home childcare services to include all income levels. Also, to support direct in-person support by parents, we proposed improving the efficacy of time support schemes and expanding accessibility to local childcare support infrastructure. Third, to design childcare support measures tailored to the characteristics of each household type, we proposed strengthening favorability toward households with multiple children by tuning the child allowance and Culture Nuri Cards to be more favorable for households with more children, and upping the age limit of child allowance eligibility. To provide support to low-income households, we also proposed the addition of objective-oriented support so as to alleviate the burden associated with food costs.
Table Of Contents
[본권] 요약 1
Ⅰ. 서론 17 1. 연구의 필요성 및 목적 19 2. 연구 내용 21 3. 연구 방법 25 4. 주요 용어 정의 28
Ⅱ. 육아정책 동향 29 1. 2018~2022 분야별 육아지원 정책 동향 31 2. 영아기 집중 투자 관점의 육아지원 강화 배경과 동향 57
PartⅠ 2022년 KICCE 소비실태조사 기초분석 67
Ⅲ. KICCE 소비실태조사 개요 69 1. 5차년도 KICCE 소비실태조사 설계 71 2. 설문 구성 및 변화 77 3. 응답자 특성 87 4. 소결 및 시사점 107
Ⅳ. 영유아가구의 소비실태 및 양육비용 109 1. 생활비 지출 총액 및 주요 지수 111 2. 육아 가구 양육비용 실태 116 3. 공적 지원금 및 세제 혜택 수혜 실태 133 4. 양육비용 부담 및 코로나19로 인한 변화 146 5. 소결 및 시사점 156
Ⅴ. 육아 가구의 육아서비스 이용 행태 및 지원 요구 161 1. 영유아 육아서비스 이용 행태 163 2. 가정내 돌봄 및 부모지원서비스 이용 행태 199 3. 육아서비스 지원에 대한 요구 221 4. 소결 및 시사점 246
PartⅡ 심층분석 251
Ⅵ. 육아가구 특성별 소득 및 지출 시계열 분석 253 1. 분석 배경: 육아가구 특성별 소득 및 지출 변화 고찰 255 2. 분석 자료 및 방법 256 3. 분석 결과 264 4. 소결 및 시사점 303
Ⅶ. 코로나의 확산이 양육비용 지출에 미친 효과 307 1. 서론 309 2. 선행연구 310 3. 식별전략 및 계량모형 311 4. 광역자치단체 수준의 추정결과 315 5. 미시수준의 추정결과 322 6. 소결 및 시사점 326
PartⅢ 결론 및 정책 제언 329
Ⅷ. 결론 및 정책 제언 331 1. 정책 방향 333 2. 육아지원의 생애주기적 접근 강화를 위한 정책 제언 335 3. 양육형태별 균형적 육아지원의 발전 모색 340 4. 가구유형별 특성을 고려한 육아지원 설계 346