This study is designed to re-analyze the data of "The National Survey on the Current Status of Child Care and Education in Korea, 2004"in order to better understand the current status of child care and education conditions. By examining the characteristics of children and their households, as well as of child care centers and kindergartens, we hope to obtain a better understanding of current conditions in Korea. In addition, it is expected that the results of this study will contribute to the enhancement of child care and educational policies. so that Korean children can develop within a better care and educational environment.
2. Major findings from an in-depth reanalysis of the data of "The 2004 National Household Survey on Children Rearing Practices in South Korea" are as follows:
Children growing up separately from their parent(s) are more likely to live in poverty than children living with their parents.
Second and later children born to a single family often results in worse family financial status and a lower percentage of costs spent on childcare facilities, as well.
The needs of parents who want 24-hour extended care services have not been sufficiently met.
Groups expending higher costs on child-care-support services prefer using kindergartens and hakwons (private institutions which have a similar function in child care and education, without official recognition) to childcare centers as childcare support institutions.
The factors affecting one"s choice of childcare services (either childcare centers or kindergartens) are household-income, residence-area, mother-employment-status. But the impossible is the opposite.
The major determinant factors for rationalizing the household costs of childcare support services are mother"s employment status and household income. The most influential factor on infants is mother-employment-status while on 3~5 year-old children, it is household-income.
3. Major findings from the in-depth reanalysis of the data of "The 2004 National Survey on the Childcare Centers" are as follows:
The percentage of children enrolled in high-quality childcare services is high. Childcare centers which offer high-quality services in education tend not only to organize childcare center management committees, but also apply for childcare center accreditation. This accreditation is administered by the government to ensure the quality of childcare center services.
Childcare centers with poor financial statuses, low enrollment, and no building ownership tend to accept governmental financial support in order to run their centers. The government controls the maximum service charge allowed from customers, mostly parents, based on the numbers of children in each center. However, others with a huge-capacity, as well as good financial statuses, want to receive a self-determined service charge from their customers thus foregoing the governmental financial support based on the numbers of children in their centers.
A childcare center’s financial state is not dependent upon its ownership of any building nor its enrollment percentages.
4. Major findings from the in-depth analysis of the data of "The 2004 National Survey on Kindergartens in South Korea" are as follows:
Factors related to good welfare, such as providing children with healthy snacks and/or meals, good sanitation conditions, etc., can justify high enrollment percentages in kindergartens.
Kindergartens with high percentages of enrollment are financially sound.
Kindergartens’financial statuses are directly related to their dedication and commitment to a high-quality teacher welfare system.
The length of teachers’employment is dependent on the welfare system, such as wages, pregnancy-leaves, and compensations.
A. Suggestions for improving the conditions of child care
A comprehensive childcare support service for children who do not live with their parents is needed.
A child care and educational policy to financially support second or later children is necessary to resolve the problem that later children tend to grow up in financially worse conditions. Therefore, it is desirable to change the policy in consideration of children"s order of birth so as to differentiate the amount of financial support given.
It is necessary to create a child care and education policy which meets the needs of families who want 24-hour extended care services.
A more concrete and systematic policy is needed to support children, especially infants with working-mothers.
B. Common suggestions for improving the environmental conditions in both childcare centers and kindergartens
A careful and special policy needs to be made to improve the poor circumstances of small childcare centers and kindergartens.
Narrowing the welfare gap among teachers is necessary to settle differences of type and sizes of childcare centers and kindergartens.
A study of how extra-curricular activities contribute to education, finance, and the enrollment of children is needed.
C. Suggestions for child care in childcare centers
To increase enrollment percentages, the quality of child care services should be improved.
The question of how to enhance the quality of childcare services is closely related to strengthened requirements for directors. It will be necessary for directors to have sufficient educational backgrounds, as well as professional development and training.
Systematically increasing the numbers of childcare centers for infants and decreasing teachers’ loads will become necessary.
Enlightening the directors of childcare centers will be required to help them learn about the meaningfulness of new childcare policies.
D. Suggestions education in kindergartens
The issue of equality in governmental financial support rationalizes the importance of cooperative kindergartens which are guaranteed their publicity by the government.
Differentiated teacher training programs in consideration of teacher"s educational backgrounds, teaching experience, and needs are essential.
When placing public kindergarten teachers, teaching careers should be considered. Whether teachers are working for a classroom kindergarten attached to an elementary school or for an independent kindergarten with more than three classrooms, it is important to have different experiences in teaching.
E. Suggestions for surveys related to childcare support
If the survey"s purpose is not only to understand the actual conditions of child care but also to gather data for establishing childcare policies, it would be more effective to take into consideration the process of designing the survey questionnaires.
When a joint household and institutional survey is enacted, it is recommended to launch and conduct the research and to present the results collectively.
If the subjects of a survey fulfill similar roles, it would be more effective to develop a standardized survey agenda, criteria, and choices, so as to make it easier to compare the survey findings with other surveys.
Table Of Contents
Ⅰ. 서론 Ⅱ. 아동과 가구특성별 육아지원서비스 이용 실태 분석 Ⅲ. 보육시설 특성별 실태 분석 Ⅳ. 유치원 특성별 실태 분석 Ⅴ. 제언 부록