This study diagnoses the current status of childcare and education service support in rural areas with a small population of infants and young children due to the decrease in population and presents a plan for an integrated support for early childhood education and childcare services. For the research method, this study examined and collected related laws, systems and related prior research related to educational and childcare service support in rural areas, population trends and childcare education statistical data. Furthermore, this study collected and analyzed overseas cases (e.g. U.S, Canada, Japan) related to education and childcare service support for infants and young children in rural areas with a sparsely populated infant and toddler population to derive implications. At the same time, an online survey was conducted targeting 401 daycare centers and 351 kindergartens to understand the current status and needs of daycare centers located in rural areas. A pilot project model for an integrated support for daycare centers in rural areas was developed and implemented. In the pilot project for integrated support for daycare centers in rural areas, four models were established: single-type, mixed-type, base-type, and integrated-type, and a total of 38 daycare centers participated in three regions in Gangwon, Chungbuk, and Jeonnam. Discussion meetings were held with directors and teachers of nurseries and kindergartens by division located in rural areas with a sparsely populated infant and toddler population, and advisory council meetings were held with the participation of academic and field experts in the field of early childhood education and childcare, as well as officials in charge of related ministries, in order to gather views on research directions and methods, pilot projects (e.g. integrated educational and childcare service model, operation of pilot projects, target areas), survey questions, and policy measures.
The research results are as follows. According to the operation status and demand survey result of childcare centers and kindergartens in rural areas. Due to the decrease in the number of children in rural areas, 84.8% of childcare centers experienced reduction in their maximum enrollment rate, and most kindergartens were established near childcare centers. Moreover, over 70% of private childcares were considering or were willing to convert into public childcare centers due to the deteriorated operation. They requested to improve the resources cost support rate and improve the resources cost support standard per class. As the number of children in kindergartens decreased, 88.3% experienced a reduction in the number of classes, and more than half of had a kindergarten or childcare center nearby. However, only 58.9% of private kindergartens were willing to convert into purchase-type public daycare centers, and 64.3% agreed with the policy of consolidation and abolition of public kindergartens. They demanded improvement in the enrollment rate per class, expansion of support for facility environment improvement, support for resources costs, and support for vehicle operation costs in order to improve education services in rural areas. A total of 38 childcare centers comprised of 12 groups in three regions, Gangwon, Chungbuk, and Jeonnam participated in the pilot project for three months. As for the business model, 3 out of 4 types were operated, including single-type, mixed-type, base-type, and integrated-type, and various businesses related to the operation of daycare centers were operated such as operation management, faculty management, program management, parental support, and connection with the local community. As a result of the pilot project, it provided an opportunity to form an emotional solidarity between childcare center directors who were experiencing the same difficulties, and gave childcare teachers the belief that the government or the childcare comprehensive support center cared about childcare teachers in rural areas, provided an opportunity to raise morale through interactive consulting, and the participation of the teacher learning community, and it also provided a venue of exchange to share information, programs and teaching materials, and operating know-how between childcare centers.
Policy recommendations are as follows. First, promote policies for expanding public childcare centers and kindergartens tailored for rural areas. This can be resolved by converting private childcare centers to public ones, to restructure public independent kindergartens, school affiliated kindergartens and purchase-type kindergartens. Second, support operation costs or resources costs to secure the financial soundness of childcare centers and kindergartens located in rural areas. Third, provide separate incentives for working in special areas to improve the supply and demand of childcare teachers at childcare centers located in rural areas. Fourth, minimize the childcare gap due to the support issue of substitute teachers by introducing the non-homeroom teacher and the itinerant teacher system. Fifth, include kindergartens in the appropriate scale-up project of local offices of education by amending the Early Childhood Education Act and the Elementary and Secondary School Act. Sixth, centralize the integrated support project for childcare centers in rural areas. Provide financial support such as operating expenses and allowances to encourage and revitalize business participation. Seventh, reinforce sharing and promoting best practices for the integrated support project for childcare centers in rural areas.
Table Of Contents
Ⅰ. 서론 13 1. 연구의 필요성 및 목적 15 2. 연구 내용 17 3. 연구방법 17 4. 선행연구 26 5. 용어의 정의 32
Ⅱ. 농어촌 보육·교육서비스 지원 제도 및 국내·외 사례 33 1. 농어촌 지역 보육․교육 지원 제도 35 2. 국내․외 사례 46 3. 시사점 80
Ⅲ. 농어촌 지역 보육·교육 서비스 공급과 이용 83 1. 농어촌지역 인구․사회학적 특성 85 2. 농어촌 지역 보육 현황 93 3. 농어촌 지역 유아교육 현황 108
Ⅳ. 농어촌 어린이집·유치원 운영 현황과 요구 113 1. 농어촌 어린이집 운영 현황과 요구 115 2. 농어촌 유치원 운영 현황과 요구 147 3. 시사점 173
Ⅴ. 농어촌 어린이집 통합 지원 시범사업 177 1. 사업 개요 179 2. 사업 추진 절차 180 3. 사업 내용 184 4. 사업 운영 현황과 평가 209 5. 사업 성과와 한계 217
Ⅵ. 정책 제언 219 1. 농어촌 어린이집․유치원 지원 방안 221 2. 농어촌 어린이집 협력사업 활성화 방안 224 3. 맺는 말 229
참고문헌 231 Abstract 241 부록 245 1. 부록 표 245 2. 어린이집․유치원 조사표 262 3. 농어촌 어린이집 통합 지원 시범사업 어린이집 조사표 276 4. 농어촌 어린이집 통합 지원 시범사업 보육교사 조사표 280