The purpose of this report was to examine the growth and development of the panel participant children for 13 years, and to provide policy implications for future generations based on multiple analyses of The Panel Study on Korean Children (PSKC) data. The present study focused on five different areas: (1) Sample attrition in the panel data, (2) Child: children’s media use and socio-emotional development, (3) Parent: parenting and child development, (4) Family: family risk factors and children’s physical/mental health, and (5) Policy: the effect of policies regarding early childhood education and care. Overall, PSKC data (Wave 1 through 13) were analyzed using the Growth Mixture Model to apply a person-centered approach (for chapters 3-6).
The first analysis (Chapter 2) examined the sample attrition in the PSKC data. We found that mothers had a greater influence on the sample attrition than fathers. The group who left the panel in infancy tended to have a lower income and education level, and a higher level of maternal depression. The group who left the panel during early childhood tended to report a relatively higher level of marital conflicts and have more relocating experiences. The group who left the panel at a school age was likely to report a higher level of parenting stress, daily stress and child problem behavior.
The second part of the study (Chapter 3) investigated the longitudinal trajectories of children’s media use and differences in socio-emotional development between latent groups. Growth Mixture Modeling analyses revealed two distinctive trajectories of children’s media use: (1) High-stable, and (2) Middle-increasing groups. ‘High-stable’ group was more likely to be isolated from peers, exposed to cyber bullying, use slang, and have parents who are addicted to media. However, ‘Middle-increasing’ group reported higher levels of peer relationship quality, teacher-child relationship quality, and sense of community.
The third part of the study (Chapter 4) explored the longitudinal trajectories of marital conflict of both mothers and fathers, and differences in various aspects of child development among latent groups. Growth Mixture Modeling analyses revealed five distinctive trajectories of mothers’ marital conflict: (1) Low-stable, (2) Lowest-stable, (3) High-stable, (4) Middle-increasing, and (5) Middle-decreasing groups. Latent groups of fathers’ marital conflict were (1) Middle, (2) Lowest, and (3) Low groups. In general, ‘Lowest-stable’ group demonstrated higher levels of academic performance, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and school adjustment.
The forth analysis (Chapter 5) was conducted to explain the longitudinal trajectories of maternal depression in infancy and preschool age and differences in children’s physical and mental health among latent groups. Growth Mixture Modeling analyses revealed four distinctive trajectories of mothers’ depression in both infancy and preschool age, respectively: (1) Low-stable, (2) High-decreasing, (3) High-stable, and (4) Low-increasing groups. Children of ‘High-stable’ group in infancy reported the highest levels of allergic symptoms in middle childhood. In terms of mental health, ‘High-stable’ group in preschool age demonstrated the lowest level of happiness in middle childhood.
The fifth part of the study (Chapter 6) explored the effectiveness of four different early childhood education and care policies. Through the free child care policy, the maternal employment rate was increased and household child care expenses were reduced. Children in dual-income families were more likely to use the after-school childcare service in elementary schools, and children who used the service were more likely to spend less time and money on private education. Children who participated in the family experiential learning program showed higher levels of overall happiness and satisfaction with school/time use in the 5th grade. Children who completed school violence prevention programs reported lower levels of strict rules and more supportive atmosphere in the 4th grade, higher levels of friend support, fun class atmosphere, teacher support and free communication, and lower levels of cyber bullying in the 5th grade.
The results of the study emphasized the need for mental health support services for infant mothers, support for improving the quality of marital relationships in panel families, and media addiction prevention programs for both children and parents. Finally, several suggestions were made for the maintenance and management of the Panel Study on Korean Children (PSKC) and the Korean ECEC Panel Study.
Table Of Contents
Ⅰ. 서론 13 1. 연구의 필요성 및 목적 15 2. 연구내용 16 3. 연구방법 17 4. 선행연구 22 5. 연구범위 30
Ⅱ. 한국아동패널 표본이탈 분석 33 1. 표본이탈 패턴 35 2. 표본이탈 패턴 유형별 특성 비교 39 3. 표본이탈 패턴 유형에 영향을 미치는 요인 분석 52 4. 소결 56
Ⅲ. 미디어와 사회성 발달 59 1. 미디어 이용과 사회성 발달 양상 61 2. 미디어 이용에 따른 집단유형화 65 3. 영유아기 미디어 이용이 아동기 사회성 발달에 미치는 영향 68 4. 소결 75
Ⅳ. 부모 양육과 아동 발달 81 1. 아동 발달 시기별 부모 양육과 양육 환경 83 2. 영유아기 부모의 부부갈등에 따른 집단유형화 90 3. 영유아기 부모의 부부갈등이 아동기 발달에 미치는 영향 98 4. 소결 112
Ⅴ. 가구 내 위험요인과 신체･정신건강 115 1. 가구 내 위험요인 117 2. 영유아기 어머니 우울에 따른 집단유형화 125 3. 영유아기 어머니 우울이 아동기 신체･정신건강에 미치는 영향 135 4. 소결 142
Ⅵ. 한국아동패널과 육아정책 149 1. 2008~2020 육아정책 흐름 151 2. 한국아동패널 육아정책 영향 분석 173 3. 소결 198