This study is intended to examine the future education and future school discourse; consider the reform of early childhood education and the childcare system; and design models of future kindergartens, daycare centers, or early childhood schools, with a view to integrating kindergarten education and childcare within a reconstructed space. As the first year’s tranche of the third consecutive study proposing a future environment–oriented kindergarten and daycare center model, this study focuses on restructuring the space of kindergarten and daycare centers in a way that responds to the future environment. To this end, this study defines the concept of future schools; analyzes major elements affecting learning activity space and unit space, and spatial characteristics of future environment–oriented kindergartens and daycare centers; and derives implications through domestic and foreign case studies. It also performs an expert Delphi survey to develop a model for future environment–oriented kindergartens and daycare centers (early childhood schools) and field surveys to evaluate policy demand for the establishment of those facilities, makes proposals for their operation, and derives policy measures. This study examines space restructuring and space innovation in preparation for a digital and climate environment and proposes a model for future early childhood schools along with guidelines for space improvement in kindergartens and daycare centers to prepare for the integration of kindergarten education and childcare, which is a national project. The main research results are summarized by sub-study as follows. First, the current status of relevant regulations and statistics shows that both the space and area of kindergartens fall under school regulations, more than half of which are more than 30 years out of date. Meanwhile, relatively few daycare centers are found in facilities catering to elderly persons compared to those found in kindergartens. Second, this study looked into related overseas cases in the US, Canada, the UK, Japan, and Norway, and these countries’ guidelines for early childhood education institutions. We visited institutions that implement disability integration, carbon neutrality, digital, Waldorf, and Green Smart projects to understand the recent trends in spatial configuration. Most of them resulted in no disability/non-disability discrimination spaces, natural/ecological/carbon neutrality orientation, advanced digital spaces, and spaces that match the lives of infants and toddlers. Third, the researcher analyzed cases by visiting early childhood education institutions that provide digital education for young children in Korea. It was found that the spaces took account of connectivity, creativity, autonomy, safety, and aesthetics. Focusing on AI, data construction, and smart device use, these spaces were configured so as to expand opportunities for digital education and faithfully implement play-oriented education. Fourth, this study explored the direction of the future early childhood school model from the results of the Delphi survey by experts. Among the predicted social changes, the factors that would have the biggest impact in the future were “low birth rate and decreasing school-age population,” followed by “change in early childhood digital environment” and “climate change and climate crisis.” The three most important tasks for future early childhood schools were, first, “development and application of a curriculum that fosters future social competency”; second, “support for strengthening teacher competency and enhancement of teacher autonomy”; and, third, “change into space for future education.” Fourth Industrial Revolution–related factors influencing early childhood schools were, first, “education goals and curriculum”; second, “teaching/learning and instructional methods”; and, third, “school building.” In terms of the image of the future school, “a future early childhood school integrating early childhood education and care and integrating education and welfare” was the most common answer, followed by “future early childhood schools as public education/public childcare institutions focusing mainly on educational change to foster future talents or citizens with competencies for the 21st century.” Factors involved in the successful operation of future early childhood schools were, in order of priority, “institutional and financial support from the state and education offices,” “leadership of early education school principals,” and “teachers’ professionalism and enthusiasm.” Other answers included “improving awareness of parents of infants (knowledge and attitude about the reality suitable for child development).” Fifth, this study conducted a survey of 1,240 kindergarten teachers and childcare teachers to derive improvement plans for early childhood education institutions. Teachers all agreed on the need for space improvement and were highly responsive to the need for future elements, spaces for disabled infants and toddlers, and spaces related to edutech and carbon neutrality. Policy proposals and the model for future schools for infants and children based on the above are as follows. First, the model for future early childhood schools as public education and childcare institutions should integrate early childhood education and care, as well as education and welfare, and commit to fostering future talents. It should also include futuristic elements in terms of education goals and curriculums (e.g., convergence and competency-centeredness, and changes to customized curriculums); teaching/learning and instructional methods (e.g., considering the development and learning characteristics of infants and children, such as play-oriented projects and life-oriented problem solving); and school buildings (e.g., various learning spaces that allow digital convergence learning, not standardized classrooms/care centers) in responding to the low birth rate, school-age crisis, and changes in the digital environment. Second, this study proposed the development and application of a curriculum that can develop future social competencies (ecological education, media literacy, etc.), support for strengthening teacher competencies (professionalism, collaboration ability, etc.), enhancement of teacher autonomy, and changes to space for future education (digitalization of the educational environment, realization of carbon-neutral schools, etc.).
Table Of Contents
Ⅰ. 서론 21 1. 연구의 필요성 및 목적 23 2. 연구내용 26 3. 연구방법 30 4. 용어의 정의 35 5. 연구의 범위 및 한계점 35 6. 미래환경대응 영유아교육 관련 연구 및 전망 37
Ⅱ. 관련 제도와 정책 현황 97 1. 관련 정책과 제도 99 2. 관련 규정과 통계 현황 123
Ⅲ. 미래환경대응 공간혁신 181 1. 국내 183 2. 국외 203
Ⅳ. 미래환경대응 디지털 놀이공간 219 1. 개요 221 2. 사례 분석 230 3. 소결 263
Ⅴ. 미래환경대응 유치원, 어린이집에 대한 인식과 요구 267 1. 전문가 조사 결과 269 2. 교원 조사 결과 297 3. 소결 316 Ⅵ. 미래환경대응 영유아학교 모델 제안 및 정책제언 321 1. 미래 영유아학교 운영 모델 323 2. 정책 방향과 과제 327
참고문헌 337 Abstract 351 부록 355 1. 실태조사지 355 2. 1차 전문가델파이 조사지 365 3. 2차 전문가델파이 조사지 376 4. 전문가 델파이 조사 참여 전문가 명단 394 5. 1차, 2차 델파이조사 분석 결과표(CV, CVR값) 395